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Foot loading characteristics of Chinese bound feet women: a comparative analysis.

Gu Y, Mei Q, Fernandez J, Li J, Ren X, Feng N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The center of pressure displacement velocity of bound feet was also greatly reduced with the shortening of trajectories.This suggests that the proprioceptive system adjusts motor function to adapt to new loading patterns while maintaining locomotive stability.A biomechanical understanding of bound feet may assist with prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of bound feet disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.

ABSTRACT
The custom of bound feet among Chinese women has existed for almost a century. This practice has influenced the daily life of Chinese women, especially during everyday locomotion. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the loading patterns of bound feet. Specifically, the plantar pressure and center of pressure were analyzed for peak pressure, contact area, force time integral, center of pressure displacement velocity and trajectory in the anterior-posterior direction via a comparison with normal feet. The key outcomes from this work were that the forefoot and rearfoot of bound feet bear the whole loading during stance phase. The center of pressure displacement velocity of bound feet was also greatly reduced with the shortening of trajectories. This suggests that the proprioceptive system adjusts motor function to adapt to new loading patterns while maintaining locomotive stability. A biomechanical understanding of bound feet may assist with prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of bound feet disorders.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The center of pressure (CoP) trajectory of bound feet (left) and normal feet (right) (ICP represents Initial Contact Phase, FFCP represents Forefoot Contact Phase, FFP represents Flat Foot Phase and FFPOP represents Forefoot Push Off Phase; the circle indicates the location of CoP while stance phase.)
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pone.0121695.g002: The center of pressure (CoP) trajectory of bound feet (left) and normal feet (right) (ICP represents Initial Contact Phase, FFCP represents Forefoot Contact Phase, FFP represents Flat Foot Phase and FFPOP represents Forefoot Push Off Phase; the circle indicates the location of CoP while stance phase.)

Mentions: One gait cycle was defined by the left foot of all participants’ successively contacting the ground twice. Peak pressure, force time integral, contact area and stance time were collected from the left foot. Data were collected and averaged via a three walking-trial of both participants with bound feet and normal feet to ensure the reliability and validity of the walking test [16]. Subjects were required to walk at a self-selected and comfortable speed. Owing to the particular morphological characteristics of foot deformation after binding, the insole was divided into four anatomical parts, Medial Forefoot (MF), Lateral Forefoot (LF), Medial Rearfoot (MR) and Lateral Rearfoot (LR) to collect data from both bound and normal feet groups for analysis (Fig 1). To explicitly show the properties of binding feet, the stance phase was divided into four individual phases according to the common patterns of walking gait [16,17]. The four phases were initial contact phase (ICP), forefoot contact phase (FFCP), foot flat phase (FFP) and forefoot push off phase (FFPOP) [17] (Fig 2). The center of pressure (CoP) trajectory and the CoP displacement velocity in the anterior-posterior direction were taken to analyze the difference between bound feet and normal feet.


Foot loading characteristics of Chinese bound feet women: a comparative analysis.

Gu Y, Mei Q, Fernandez J, Li J, Ren X, Feng N - PLoS ONE (2015)

The center of pressure (CoP) trajectory of bound feet (left) and normal feet (right) (ICP represents Initial Contact Phase, FFCP represents Forefoot Contact Phase, FFP represents Flat Foot Phase and FFPOP represents Forefoot Push Off Phase; the circle indicates the location of CoP while stance phase.)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401540&req=5

pone.0121695.g002: The center of pressure (CoP) trajectory of bound feet (left) and normal feet (right) (ICP represents Initial Contact Phase, FFCP represents Forefoot Contact Phase, FFP represents Flat Foot Phase and FFPOP represents Forefoot Push Off Phase; the circle indicates the location of CoP while stance phase.)
Mentions: One gait cycle was defined by the left foot of all participants’ successively contacting the ground twice. Peak pressure, force time integral, contact area and stance time were collected from the left foot. Data were collected and averaged via a three walking-trial of both participants with bound feet and normal feet to ensure the reliability and validity of the walking test [16]. Subjects were required to walk at a self-selected and comfortable speed. Owing to the particular morphological characteristics of foot deformation after binding, the insole was divided into four anatomical parts, Medial Forefoot (MF), Lateral Forefoot (LF), Medial Rearfoot (MR) and Lateral Rearfoot (LR) to collect data from both bound and normal feet groups for analysis (Fig 1). To explicitly show the properties of binding feet, the stance phase was divided into four individual phases according to the common patterns of walking gait [16,17]. The four phases were initial contact phase (ICP), forefoot contact phase (FFCP), foot flat phase (FFP) and forefoot push off phase (FFPOP) [17] (Fig 2). The center of pressure (CoP) trajectory and the CoP displacement velocity in the anterior-posterior direction were taken to analyze the difference between bound feet and normal feet.

Bottom Line: The center of pressure displacement velocity of bound feet was also greatly reduced with the shortening of trajectories.This suggests that the proprioceptive system adjusts motor function to adapt to new loading patterns while maintaining locomotive stability.A biomechanical understanding of bound feet may assist with prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of bound feet disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.

ABSTRACT
The custom of bound feet among Chinese women has existed for almost a century. This practice has influenced the daily life of Chinese women, especially during everyday locomotion. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the loading patterns of bound feet. Specifically, the plantar pressure and center of pressure were analyzed for peak pressure, contact area, force time integral, center of pressure displacement velocity and trajectory in the anterior-posterior direction via a comparison with normal feet. The key outcomes from this work were that the forefoot and rearfoot of bound feet bear the whole loading during stance phase. The center of pressure displacement velocity of bound feet was also greatly reduced with the shortening of trajectories. This suggests that the proprioceptive system adjusts motor function to adapt to new loading patterns while maintaining locomotive stability. A biomechanical understanding of bound feet may assist with prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of bound feet disorders.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus