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Oral submucous fibrosis: an update.

Wollina U, Verma SB, Ali FM, Patil K - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Bottom Line: OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology.Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus.Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Handmade and commercial forms of betel.Notes: (A) Typical ingredients of hand-made betel quid: green piper betel leaves (left), areca nut (lower right), slaked lime (upper left), and a mixture of spices (upper right). (B) Some commercial brands ready to use.
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f1-ccid-8-193: Handmade and commercial forms of betel.Notes: (A) Typical ingredients of hand-made betel quid: green piper betel leaves (left), areca nut (lower right), slaked lime (upper left), and a mixture of spices (upper right). (B) Some commercial brands ready to use.

Mentions: Betel is composed of the areca nut (Areca catechu), the fresh leaf of betel pepper (Piper betle), spices, and calcium hydroxide (lime) (Figure 1A and B). Pan or paan masala is a quid of piper betel leaf.8 Mawa is a mixture of tobacco, lime, and areca nut. Chewing tobacco or guthka became very popular, and betel chewers often also used guthka. However, guthka has recently been officially banned from the Indian market,9–11 but chewing tobacco-containing betel quid has become one of the most popular habits in South Asia.12 Since there is a lot in common between the various areca nut mixtures (pan, mawa) we will not differentiate between them. Betel is now widely available in the Western world as well.13


Oral submucous fibrosis: an update.

Wollina U, Verma SB, Ali FM, Patil K - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Handmade and commercial forms of betel.Notes: (A) Typical ingredients of hand-made betel quid: green piper betel leaves (left), areca nut (lower right), slaked lime (upper left), and a mixture of spices (upper right). (B) Some commercial brands ready to use.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401336&req=5

f1-ccid-8-193: Handmade and commercial forms of betel.Notes: (A) Typical ingredients of hand-made betel quid: green piper betel leaves (left), areca nut (lower right), slaked lime (upper left), and a mixture of spices (upper right). (B) Some commercial brands ready to use.
Mentions: Betel is composed of the areca nut (Areca catechu), the fresh leaf of betel pepper (Piper betle), spices, and calcium hydroxide (lime) (Figure 1A and B). Pan or paan masala is a quid of piper betel leaf.8 Mawa is a mixture of tobacco, lime, and areca nut. Chewing tobacco or guthka became very popular, and betel chewers often also used guthka. However, guthka has recently been officially banned from the Indian market,9–11 but chewing tobacco-containing betel quid has become one of the most popular habits in South Asia.12 Since there is a lot in common between the various areca nut mixtures (pan, mawa) we will not differentiate between them. Betel is now widely available in the Western world as well.13

Bottom Line: OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology.Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus.Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus