Limits...
Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities.

Cedazo-Mínguez A - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2007 Nov-Dec)

Bottom Line: Epidemiological studies demonstrated that apoE4 carriers have a higher risk and develop the disease and an early onset.Moreover, apoE4 is the only molecule that has been associated with all the biochemical disturbances characteristic of the disease: amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition, tangle formation, oxidative stress, lipid homeostasis deregulation, synaptic plasticity loss and cholinergic dysfunction.This large body of evidence suggest that apoE is a key player in the pathogenesis of AD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, KI-Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, NOVUM, Stockholm, Sweden. Angel.Cedazo-Minguez@ki.se

ABSTRACT
Multiple genetic and environmental factors are likely to contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most important known risk factor for AD is presence of the E4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (apoE). Epidemiological studies demonstrated that apoE4 carriers have a higher risk and develop the disease and an early onset. Moreover, apoE4 is the only molecule that has been associated with all the biochemical disturbances characteristic of the disease: amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition, tangle formation, oxidative stress, lipid homeostasis deregulation, synaptic plasticity loss and cholinergic dysfunction. This large body of evidence suggest that apoE is a key player in the pathogenesis of AD. This short review examines the current facts and hypotheses of the association between apoE4 and AD, as well as the therapeutic possibilities that apoE might offer for the treatment of this disease.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

The Alzheimer's disease (AD) puzzle. The molecular mechanisms leading to AD have been shown to include dysfunctions in several biological processes, including oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and altered signal transduction. Aging is the major risk factor AD. Few mutations in the amy-loid precursor protein (APP) or the presenilin genes (PS) cause AD by increasing the production of Aβ. The apoE genotype is the most important genetic factor for AD. The presence of apoE4 has been associated with sever-al aspects (indicated in red) of the AD pathological cascade.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401287&req=5

fig01: The Alzheimer's disease (AD) puzzle. The molecular mechanisms leading to AD have been shown to include dysfunctions in several biological processes, including oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and altered signal transduction. Aging is the major risk factor AD. Few mutations in the amy-loid precursor protein (APP) or the presenilin genes (PS) cause AD by increasing the production of Aβ. The apoE genotype is the most important genetic factor for AD. The presence of apoE4 has been associated with sever-al aspects (indicated in red) of the AD pathological cascade.

Mentions: The presence of apoE4 is the most important known risk factor for AD. ApoE is the only molecule that has been associated with all the biochemical disturbances characteristic of the disease: Aβ deposition, tangle formation, neurodegeneration, lipid dysfunction, loss of synaptic plasticity, cholinergic dysfunction and disruption of signalling (Fig. 1). The presence of apoE4 exacerbates these disturbances, while other apoE isoforms are protective. Several exciting new apoE-based therapeutic strategies for AD are under research (Fig. 2). Drugs are normally designed against a central pathway for a particular disease. Thus, apoE is not a typical target, since it has so many functions and isoform-specific effects. However, this may be an advantage for a multi-etiological disorder such as AD. The omnipresence of apoE in AD pathology may be the key for understanding the mechanisms leading to this complex disorder and for finding new multi-targeted therapeutic approaches.


Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities.

Cedazo-Mínguez A - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2007 Nov-Dec)

The Alzheimer's disease (AD) puzzle. The molecular mechanisms leading to AD have been shown to include dysfunctions in several biological processes, including oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and altered signal transduction. Aging is the major risk factor AD. Few mutations in the amy-loid precursor protein (APP) or the presenilin genes (PS) cause AD by increasing the production of Aβ. The apoE genotype is the most important genetic factor for AD. The presence of apoE4 has been associated with sever-al aspects (indicated in red) of the AD pathological cascade.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401287&req=5

fig01: The Alzheimer's disease (AD) puzzle. The molecular mechanisms leading to AD have been shown to include dysfunctions in several biological processes, including oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and altered signal transduction. Aging is the major risk factor AD. Few mutations in the amy-loid precursor protein (APP) or the presenilin genes (PS) cause AD by increasing the production of Aβ. The apoE genotype is the most important genetic factor for AD. The presence of apoE4 has been associated with sever-al aspects (indicated in red) of the AD pathological cascade.
Mentions: The presence of apoE4 is the most important known risk factor for AD. ApoE is the only molecule that has been associated with all the biochemical disturbances characteristic of the disease: Aβ deposition, tangle formation, neurodegeneration, lipid dysfunction, loss of synaptic plasticity, cholinergic dysfunction and disruption of signalling (Fig. 1). The presence of apoE4 exacerbates these disturbances, while other apoE isoforms are protective. Several exciting new apoE-based therapeutic strategies for AD are under research (Fig. 2). Drugs are normally designed against a central pathway for a particular disease. Thus, apoE is not a typical target, since it has so many functions and isoform-specific effects. However, this may be an advantage for a multi-etiological disorder such as AD. The omnipresence of apoE in AD pathology may be the key for understanding the mechanisms leading to this complex disorder and for finding new multi-targeted therapeutic approaches.

Bottom Line: Epidemiological studies demonstrated that apoE4 carriers have a higher risk and develop the disease and an early onset.Moreover, apoE4 is the only molecule that has been associated with all the biochemical disturbances characteristic of the disease: amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition, tangle formation, oxidative stress, lipid homeostasis deregulation, synaptic plasticity loss and cholinergic dysfunction.This large body of evidence suggest that apoE is a key player in the pathogenesis of AD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, KI-Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, NOVUM, Stockholm, Sweden. Angel.Cedazo-Minguez@ki.se

ABSTRACT
Multiple genetic and environmental factors are likely to contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most important known risk factor for AD is presence of the E4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (apoE). Epidemiological studies demonstrated that apoE4 carriers have a higher risk and develop the disease and an early onset. Moreover, apoE4 is the only molecule that has been associated with all the biochemical disturbances characteristic of the disease: amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition, tangle formation, oxidative stress, lipid homeostasis deregulation, synaptic plasticity loss and cholinergic dysfunction. This large body of evidence suggest that apoE is a key player in the pathogenesis of AD. This short review examines the current facts and hypotheses of the association between apoE4 and AD, as well as the therapeutic possibilities that apoE might offer for the treatment of this disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus