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Tissue engineering of blood vessel.

Zhang WJ, Liu W, Cui L, Cao Y - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2007 Sep-Oct)

Bottom Line: Moreover, the commonly used materials lack growth potential, and long-term results have revealed several material-related failures, such as stenosis, thromboembolization, calcium deposition and infection.To date, tissue- engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) could be successfully constructed in vitro, and be used to repair the vascular defects in animal models.The remaining challenges are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
Vascular grafts are in large demand for coronary and peripheral bypass surgeries. Although synthetic grafts have been developed, replacement of vessels with purely synthetic polymeric conduits often leads to the failure of such graft, especially in the grafts less than 6 mm in diameter or in the areas of low blood flow, mainly due to the early formation of thrombosis. Moreover, the commonly used materials lack growth potential, and long-term results have revealed several material-related failures, such as stenosis, thromboembolization, calcium deposition and infection. Tissue engineering has become a promising approach for generating a bio-compatible vessel graft with growth potential. Since the first success of constructing blood vessels with collagen and cultured vascular cells by Weinberg and Bell, there has been considerable progress in the area of vessel engineering. To date, tissue- engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) could be successfully constructed in vitro, and be used to repair the vascular defects in animal models. This review describes the major progress in the field, including the seeding cell sources, the biodegradable scaffolds, the construction technologies, as well as the encouraging achievements in clinical applications. The remaining challenges are also discussed.

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Schematic diagram of engineering blood vessels by tissue-engineering approach for clinical application.
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fig01: Schematic diagram of engineering blood vessels by tissue-engineering approach for clinical application.

Mentions: The general approach of tissue engineering is to seed cells on biodegradable scaffolds first, followed by in vitro culture or in vivo implantation. Ideally, the scaffolds will be gradually resorbed, leaving only the new tissue generated by the cells. Thus, the successful tissue regeneration relies on the seeding cells, the scaffolds and the construction technologies [8, 9]. Functional TEBVs should be non-thrombogenic, non-immunogenic, compatible at high blood flow rates and have similar viscoelasticity to native vessels [10–12]. Moreover, the grafts should be living tissues that could eventually integrate into the body and become indistinguishable from the native vessels. It has been accepted that the functional TEBVs cannot be achieved without ECs, SMCs, biodegradable scaffolds and the unique vessel-engineering techniques (Fig. 1).


Tissue engineering of blood vessel.

Zhang WJ, Liu W, Cui L, Cao Y - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2007 Sep-Oct)

Schematic diagram of engineering blood vessels by tissue-engineering approach for clinical application.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401266&req=5

fig01: Schematic diagram of engineering blood vessels by tissue-engineering approach for clinical application.
Mentions: The general approach of tissue engineering is to seed cells on biodegradable scaffolds first, followed by in vitro culture or in vivo implantation. Ideally, the scaffolds will be gradually resorbed, leaving only the new tissue generated by the cells. Thus, the successful tissue regeneration relies on the seeding cells, the scaffolds and the construction technologies [8, 9]. Functional TEBVs should be non-thrombogenic, non-immunogenic, compatible at high blood flow rates and have similar viscoelasticity to native vessels [10–12]. Moreover, the grafts should be living tissues that could eventually integrate into the body and become indistinguishable from the native vessels. It has been accepted that the functional TEBVs cannot be achieved without ECs, SMCs, biodegradable scaffolds and the unique vessel-engineering techniques (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: Moreover, the commonly used materials lack growth potential, and long-term results have revealed several material-related failures, such as stenosis, thromboembolization, calcium deposition and infection.To date, tissue- engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) could be successfully constructed in vitro, and be used to repair the vascular defects in animal models.The remaining challenges are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
Vascular grafts are in large demand for coronary and peripheral bypass surgeries. Although synthetic grafts have been developed, replacement of vessels with purely synthetic polymeric conduits often leads to the failure of such graft, especially in the grafts less than 6 mm in diameter or in the areas of low blood flow, mainly due to the early formation of thrombosis. Moreover, the commonly used materials lack growth potential, and long-term results have revealed several material-related failures, such as stenosis, thromboembolization, calcium deposition and infection. Tissue engineering has become a promising approach for generating a bio-compatible vessel graft with growth potential. Since the first success of constructing blood vessels with collagen and cultured vascular cells by Weinberg and Bell, there has been considerable progress in the area of vessel engineering. To date, tissue- engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) could be successfully constructed in vitro, and be used to repair the vascular defects in animal models. This review describes the major progress in the field, including the seeding cell sources, the biodegradable scaffolds, the construction technologies, as well as the encouraging achievements in clinical applications. The remaining challenges are also discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus