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Granulation techniques and technologies: recent progresses.

Shanmugam S - Bioimpacts (2015)

Bottom Line: Among currently available technologies, spray drying, roller compaction, high shear mixing, and fluid bed granulation are worth of note.Like any other scientific field, pharmaceutical granulation technology also continues to change, and arrival of novel and innovative technologies are inevitable.This review gives an overview of these with a short description about each development along with its significance and limitations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Pharm. R&D Institute, Hanmi Pharm. Co., Ltd., Hwasung, Gyeonggi, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Granulation, the process of particle enlargement by agglomeration technique, is one of the most significant unit operations in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms, mostly tablets and capsules. Granulation process transforms fine powders into free-flowing, dust-free granules that are easy to compress. Nevertheless, granulation poses numerous challenges due to high quality requirement of the formed granules in terms of content uniformity and physicochemical properties such as granule size, bulk density, porosity, hardness, moisture, compressibility, etc. together with physical and chemical stability of the drug. Granulation process can be divided into two types: wet granulation that utilize a liquid in the process and dry granulation that requires no liquid. The type of process selection requires thorough knowledge of physicochemical properties of the drug, excipients, required flow and release properties, to name a few. Among currently available technologies, spray drying, roller compaction, high shear mixing, and fluid bed granulation are worth of note. Like any other scientific field, pharmaceutical granulation technology also continues to change, and arrival of novel and innovative technologies are inevitable. This review focuses on the recent progress in the granulation techniques and technologies such as pneumatic dry granulation, reverse wet granulation, steam granulation, moisture-activated dry granulation, thermal adhesion granulation, freeze granulation, and foamed binder or foam granulation. This review gives an overview of these with a short description about each development along with its significance and limitations.

No MeSH data available.


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Mentions: This technique is a variation of conventional wet granulation technique. It uses very little water to activate a binder and initiate agglomeration.18 This technique involves two steps, 1) wet agglomeration of the powder particles, and 2) moisture absorption or distribution. Agglomeration is facilitated by adding a small amount of water, usually less than 5% (1-4% preferably), to the mixture of drug, binder and other excipients. The two steps of this MADG are presented in Fig. 7. Agglomeration takes place when the granulating fluid (water) activates the binder. Once the agglomeration is achieved, moisture-absorbing material such as microcrystalline cellulose, silicon dioxide, etc. is added to facilitate the absorption of excess moisture. The moisture absorbents absorb the moisture from the agglomerates, resulting in moisture redistribution within the powder mixture, leading to relatively dry granule mixture. During this moisture redistribution process, some of the agglomerates remain intact in size without change, while some larger agglomerates may break leading to more uniform particle size distribution. It does not require an expensive drying step.19-21


Granulation techniques and technologies: recent progresses.

Shanmugam S - Bioimpacts (2015)

© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401168&req=5

Mentions: This technique is a variation of conventional wet granulation technique. It uses very little water to activate a binder and initiate agglomeration.18 This technique involves two steps, 1) wet agglomeration of the powder particles, and 2) moisture absorption or distribution. Agglomeration is facilitated by adding a small amount of water, usually less than 5% (1-4% preferably), to the mixture of drug, binder and other excipients. The two steps of this MADG are presented in Fig. 7. Agglomeration takes place when the granulating fluid (water) activates the binder. Once the agglomeration is achieved, moisture-absorbing material such as microcrystalline cellulose, silicon dioxide, etc. is added to facilitate the absorption of excess moisture. The moisture absorbents absorb the moisture from the agglomerates, resulting in moisture redistribution within the powder mixture, leading to relatively dry granule mixture. During this moisture redistribution process, some of the agglomerates remain intact in size without change, while some larger agglomerates may break leading to more uniform particle size distribution. It does not require an expensive drying step.19-21

Bottom Line: Among currently available technologies, spray drying, roller compaction, high shear mixing, and fluid bed granulation are worth of note.Like any other scientific field, pharmaceutical granulation technology also continues to change, and arrival of novel and innovative technologies are inevitable.This review gives an overview of these with a short description about each development along with its significance and limitations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Pharm. R&D Institute, Hanmi Pharm. Co., Ltd., Hwasung, Gyeonggi, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Granulation, the process of particle enlargement by agglomeration technique, is one of the most significant unit operations in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms, mostly tablets and capsules. Granulation process transforms fine powders into free-flowing, dust-free granules that are easy to compress. Nevertheless, granulation poses numerous challenges due to high quality requirement of the formed granules in terms of content uniformity and physicochemical properties such as granule size, bulk density, porosity, hardness, moisture, compressibility, etc. together with physical and chemical stability of the drug. Granulation process can be divided into two types: wet granulation that utilize a liquid in the process and dry granulation that requires no liquid. The type of process selection requires thorough knowledge of physicochemical properties of the drug, excipients, required flow and release properties, to name a few. Among currently available technologies, spray drying, roller compaction, high shear mixing, and fluid bed granulation are worth of note. Like any other scientific field, pharmaceutical granulation technology also continues to change, and arrival of novel and innovative technologies are inevitable. This review focuses on the recent progress in the granulation techniques and technologies such as pneumatic dry granulation, reverse wet granulation, steam granulation, moisture-activated dry granulation, thermal adhesion granulation, freeze granulation, and foamed binder or foam granulation. This review gives an overview of these with a short description about each development along with its significance and limitations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus