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Surface tension in human pathophysiology and its application as a medical diagnostic tool.

Fathi-Azarbayjani A, Jouyban A - Bioimpacts (2015)

Bottom Line: Pathological features of disease appear to be quite different.It is well accepted that no single biomarker will be effective in clinical diagnosis.The surface tension measurement combined with routine lab tests may be a novel non-invasive method which can not only facilitate the discovery of diagnostic models for various diseases and its severity, but also be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pathological features of disease appear to be quite different. Despite this diversity, the common feature of various disorders underlies physicochemical and biochemical factors such as surface tension. Human biological fluids comprise various proteins and phospholipids which are capable of adsorption at fluid interfaces and play a vital role in the physiological function of human organs. Surface tension of body fluids correlates directly to the development of pathological states.

Methods: In this review, the variety of human diseases mediated by the surface tension changes of biological phenomena and the failure of biological fluids to remain in their native state are discussed.

Results: Dynamic surface tension measurements of human biological fluids depend on various parameters such as sex, age and changes during pregnancy or certain disease. It is expected that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional information and might become useful in medical practice. Theoretical background on surface tension measurement and surface tension values of reference fluids obtained from healthy and sick patients are depicted.

Conclusion: It is well accepted that no single biomarker will be effective in clinical diagnosis. The surface tension measurement combined with routine lab tests may be a novel non-invasive method which can not only facilitate the discovery of diagnostic models for various diseases and its severity, but also be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy. We therefore expect that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional useful information in medical practice.

No MeSH data available.


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Mentions: The normal human red blood cell (RBC or erythrocyte) with a diameter of 8 μm is shaped like a flattened biconcave disc often referred to as discocyte. The outer leaflet is composed of phospholipids and cholesterol such as phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and glycophospholipids, whereas phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine are located in the inner leaflet. Due to elastic properties and charge difference between the two leaflets, the resting shape of the red blood cells is formed. Environmental factors such as pH and chemical agents like amphiphiles can increase the area difference between the two leaflets and deform its shape by causing curvature on its lipid bilayer. The resting shape is in equilibrium with other shapes such as echinocytes (crenated shapes) and stomatocytes (cup-like shapes). An increase in the pH of the medium or addition of amphiphiles can lead to an increase in the surface pressure. The repulsion between the two surface charges and the tension difference between the inner and outer membrane surface leads to cell-shape transformation in the sequence of stomatocyte → discocyte → echinocyte ( Fig. 5).88,89


Surface tension in human pathophysiology and its application as a medical diagnostic tool.

Fathi-Azarbayjani A, Jouyban A - Bioimpacts (2015)

© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401165&req=5

Mentions: The normal human red blood cell (RBC or erythrocyte) with a diameter of 8 μm is shaped like a flattened biconcave disc often referred to as discocyte. The outer leaflet is composed of phospholipids and cholesterol such as phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and glycophospholipids, whereas phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine are located in the inner leaflet. Due to elastic properties and charge difference between the two leaflets, the resting shape of the red blood cells is formed. Environmental factors such as pH and chemical agents like amphiphiles can increase the area difference between the two leaflets and deform its shape by causing curvature on its lipid bilayer. The resting shape is in equilibrium with other shapes such as echinocytes (crenated shapes) and stomatocytes (cup-like shapes). An increase in the pH of the medium or addition of amphiphiles can lead to an increase in the surface pressure. The repulsion between the two surface charges and the tension difference between the inner and outer membrane surface leads to cell-shape transformation in the sequence of stomatocyte → discocyte → echinocyte ( Fig. 5).88,89

Bottom Line: Pathological features of disease appear to be quite different.It is well accepted that no single biomarker will be effective in clinical diagnosis.The surface tension measurement combined with routine lab tests may be a novel non-invasive method which can not only facilitate the discovery of diagnostic models for various diseases and its severity, but also be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pathological features of disease appear to be quite different. Despite this diversity, the common feature of various disorders underlies physicochemical and biochemical factors such as surface tension. Human biological fluids comprise various proteins and phospholipids which are capable of adsorption at fluid interfaces and play a vital role in the physiological function of human organs. Surface tension of body fluids correlates directly to the development of pathological states.

Methods: In this review, the variety of human diseases mediated by the surface tension changes of biological phenomena and the failure of biological fluids to remain in their native state are discussed.

Results: Dynamic surface tension measurements of human biological fluids depend on various parameters such as sex, age and changes during pregnancy or certain disease. It is expected that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional information and might become useful in medical practice. Theoretical background on surface tension measurement and surface tension values of reference fluids obtained from healthy and sick patients are depicted.

Conclusion: It is well accepted that no single biomarker will be effective in clinical diagnosis. The surface tension measurement combined with routine lab tests may be a novel non-invasive method which can not only facilitate the discovery of diagnostic models for various diseases and its severity, but also be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy. We therefore expect that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional useful information in medical practice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus