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Fetal stem cells from extra-embryonic tissues: do not discard.

Marcus AJ, Woodbury D - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2008)

Bottom Line: Extra-embryonic tissues are large, potentially increasing the number of stem cells that can be extracted.Lastly, the generation and sequestration of cells that form extra-embryonic tissues occurs early in development and may endow resident stem cell populations with enhanced potency.In this review we summarize recent work examining the plasticity and clinical potential of fetal stem cells isolated from extra-embryonic tissues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Ira B. Black Center for Stem Cell Research and the Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854-5635, USA. marcusak@umdnj.edu

ABSTRACT
Stem cells hold promise to treat diseases currently unapproachable, including Parkinson's disease, liver disease and diabetes. Seminal research has demonstrated the ability of embryonic and adult stem cells to differentiate into clinically useful cell types in vitro and in vivo. More recently, the potential of fetal stem cells derived from extra-embryonic tissues has been investigated. Fetal stem cells are particularly appealing for clinical applications. The cells are readily isolated from tissues normally discarded at birth, avoiding ethical concerns that plague the isolation embryonic stem cells. Extra-embryonic tissues are large, potentially increasing the number of stem cells that can be extracted. Lastly, the generation and sequestration of cells that form extra-embryonic tissues occurs early in development and may endow resident stem cell populations with enhanced potency. In this review we summarize recent work examining the plasticity and clinical potential of fetal stem cells isolated from extra-embryonic tissues.

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Pancreatic, neural, and cardiac in vitro differentiation of AE cells. (A) Pancreatic differentiation of AE cells. One-step RT-PCR was conducted with the indicated primers on total RNA extracted from cells cultured for 14 days with media supplemented with nicotinamide (10 mM). The expression of the early pancreatic transcription factor PDX-1 and the downstream transcription factors Pax-6 and Nkx 2.2 and the mature hormones insulin and glucagon (Cy3, red) were identified. The photograph shows immunolocalization of glucagon expression with DAPI nuclear counterstaining in blue. Scale bar = 100 μm. (B): Neural differentiation of AE cells. Neural-specific gene expression was examined by one-step RT-PCR. GFAP immunostaining: more than 90% of the cells are GFAP-positive (Cy3, red). Approximately 5–10% of cells are positive for CNP (fluorescein isothiocyanate, green). DAPI nuclear counterstaining (blue). Scale bars = 100 μm. (C) Cardiomyocyte differentiation of AE cells. One-step RT-PCR for cardiomyocyte-specific genes from AE cells cultured for 14 days in basal media supplemented with ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Immunofluorescent image with an anti-alpha-actinin antibody (Cy-3, red) and DAPI nuclear counterstaining (blue). Scale bar = 50 μm. AE, amniotic epithelial; CNP, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; Nkx 2.2, NK2 transcription factor-related locus 2; Pax-6, paired box homeotic gene 6; PDX-1, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1; RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Reprinted with permission Stem Cells Vol. 23 No. 10 November 2005, pp. 1549–1559.
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fig05: Pancreatic, neural, and cardiac in vitro differentiation of AE cells. (A) Pancreatic differentiation of AE cells. One-step RT-PCR was conducted with the indicated primers on total RNA extracted from cells cultured for 14 days with media supplemented with nicotinamide (10 mM). The expression of the early pancreatic transcription factor PDX-1 and the downstream transcription factors Pax-6 and Nkx 2.2 and the mature hormones insulin and glucagon (Cy3, red) were identified. The photograph shows immunolocalization of glucagon expression with DAPI nuclear counterstaining in blue. Scale bar = 100 μm. (B): Neural differentiation of AE cells. Neural-specific gene expression was examined by one-step RT-PCR. GFAP immunostaining: more than 90% of the cells are GFAP-positive (Cy3, red). Approximately 5–10% of cells are positive for CNP (fluorescein isothiocyanate, green). DAPI nuclear counterstaining (blue). Scale bars = 100 μm. (C) Cardiomyocyte differentiation of AE cells. One-step RT-PCR for cardiomyocyte-specific genes from AE cells cultured for 14 days in basal media supplemented with ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Immunofluorescent image with an anti-alpha-actinin antibody (Cy-3, red) and DAPI nuclear counterstaining (blue). Scale bar = 50 μm. AE, amniotic epithelial; CNP, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; Nkx 2.2, NK2 transcription factor-related locus 2; Pax-6, paired box homeotic gene 6; PDX-1, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1; RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Reprinted with permission Stem Cells Vol. 23 No. 10 November 2005, pp. 1549–1559.

Mentions: The expression of numerous stem cell markers suggests that AECs may be multipotent; a contention supported by in vitro differentiation studies (Fig. 5). To assess capacity for endodermal differentiation, AECs were grown in the presence of nicotimamide for 7 days. Treated cells initiated the expression of multiple pancreatic genes, including the transcription factor Pax-6 and the hormones glucagon and insulin. Different culture conditions encouraged hepatic differentiation, as demonstrated by expression of albumin and α1-antitrypsin.


Fetal stem cells from extra-embryonic tissues: do not discard.

Marcus AJ, Woodbury D - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2008)

Pancreatic, neural, and cardiac in vitro differentiation of AE cells. (A) Pancreatic differentiation of AE cells. One-step RT-PCR was conducted with the indicated primers on total RNA extracted from cells cultured for 14 days with media supplemented with nicotinamide (10 mM). The expression of the early pancreatic transcription factor PDX-1 and the downstream transcription factors Pax-6 and Nkx 2.2 and the mature hormones insulin and glucagon (Cy3, red) were identified. The photograph shows immunolocalization of glucagon expression with DAPI nuclear counterstaining in blue. Scale bar = 100 μm. (B): Neural differentiation of AE cells. Neural-specific gene expression was examined by one-step RT-PCR. GFAP immunostaining: more than 90% of the cells are GFAP-positive (Cy3, red). Approximately 5–10% of cells are positive for CNP (fluorescein isothiocyanate, green). DAPI nuclear counterstaining (blue). Scale bars = 100 μm. (C) Cardiomyocyte differentiation of AE cells. One-step RT-PCR for cardiomyocyte-specific genes from AE cells cultured for 14 days in basal media supplemented with ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Immunofluorescent image with an anti-alpha-actinin antibody (Cy-3, red) and DAPI nuclear counterstaining (blue). Scale bar = 50 μm. AE, amniotic epithelial; CNP, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; Nkx 2.2, NK2 transcription factor-related locus 2; Pax-6, paired box homeotic gene 6; PDX-1, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1; RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Reprinted with permission Stem Cells Vol. 23 No. 10 November 2005, pp. 1549–1559.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig05: Pancreatic, neural, and cardiac in vitro differentiation of AE cells. (A) Pancreatic differentiation of AE cells. One-step RT-PCR was conducted with the indicated primers on total RNA extracted from cells cultured for 14 days with media supplemented with nicotinamide (10 mM). The expression of the early pancreatic transcription factor PDX-1 and the downstream transcription factors Pax-6 and Nkx 2.2 and the mature hormones insulin and glucagon (Cy3, red) were identified. The photograph shows immunolocalization of glucagon expression with DAPI nuclear counterstaining in blue. Scale bar = 100 μm. (B): Neural differentiation of AE cells. Neural-specific gene expression was examined by one-step RT-PCR. GFAP immunostaining: more than 90% of the cells are GFAP-positive (Cy3, red). Approximately 5–10% of cells are positive for CNP (fluorescein isothiocyanate, green). DAPI nuclear counterstaining (blue). Scale bars = 100 μm. (C) Cardiomyocyte differentiation of AE cells. One-step RT-PCR for cardiomyocyte-specific genes from AE cells cultured for 14 days in basal media supplemented with ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Immunofluorescent image with an anti-alpha-actinin antibody (Cy-3, red) and DAPI nuclear counterstaining (blue). Scale bar = 50 μm. AE, amniotic epithelial; CNP, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; Nkx 2.2, NK2 transcription factor-related locus 2; Pax-6, paired box homeotic gene 6; PDX-1, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1; RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Reprinted with permission Stem Cells Vol. 23 No. 10 November 2005, pp. 1549–1559.
Mentions: The expression of numerous stem cell markers suggests that AECs may be multipotent; a contention supported by in vitro differentiation studies (Fig. 5). To assess capacity for endodermal differentiation, AECs were grown in the presence of nicotimamide for 7 days. Treated cells initiated the expression of multiple pancreatic genes, including the transcription factor Pax-6 and the hormones glucagon and insulin. Different culture conditions encouraged hepatic differentiation, as demonstrated by expression of albumin and α1-antitrypsin.

Bottom Line: Extra-embryonic tissues are large, potentially increasing the number of stem cells that can be extracted.Lastly, the generation and sequestration of cells that form extra-embryonic tissues occurs early in development and may endow resident stem cell populations with enhanced potency.In this review we summarize recent work examining the plasticity and clinical potential of fetal stem cells isolated from extra-embryonic tissues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Ira B. Black Center for Stem Cell Research and the Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854-5635, USA. marcusak@umdnj.edu

ABSTRACT
Stem cells hold promise to treat diseases currently unapproachable, including Parkinson's disease, liver disease and diabetes. Seminal research has demonstrated the ability of embryonic and adult stem cells to differentiate into clinically useful cell types in vitro and in vivo. More recently, the potential of fetal stem cells derived from extra-embryonic tissues has been investigated. Fetal stem cells are particularly appealing for clinical applications. The cells are readily isolated from tissues normally discarded at birth, avoiding ethical concerns that plague the isolation embryonic stem cells. Extra-embryonic tissues are large, potentially increasing the number of stem cells that can be extracted. Lastly, the generation and sequestration of cells that form extra-embryonic tissues occurs early in development and may endow resident stem cell populations with enhanced potency. In this review we summarize recent work examining the plasticity and clinical potential of fetal stem cells isolated from extra-embryonic tissues.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus