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Fetal stem cells from extra-embryonic tissues: do not discard.

Marcus AJ, Woodbury D - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2008)

Bottom Line: Extra-embryonic tissues are large, potentially increasing the number of stem cells that can be extracted.Lastly, the generation and sequestration of cells that form extra-embryonic tissues occurs early in development and may endow resident stem cell populations with enhanced potency.In this review we summarize recent work examining the plasticity and clinical potential of fetal stem cells isolated from extra-embryonic tissues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Ira B. Black Center for Stem Cell Research and the Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854-5635, USA. marcusak@umdnj.edu

ABSTRACT
Stem cells hold promise to treat diseases currently unapproachable, including Parkinson's disease, liver disease and diabetes. Seminal research has demonstrated the ability of embryonic and adult stem cells to differentiate into clinically useful cell types in vitro and in vivo. More recently, the potential of fetal stem cells derived from extra-embryonic tissues has been investigated. Fetal stem cells are particularly appealing for clinical applications. The cells are readily isolated from tissues normally discarded at birth, avoiding ethical concerns that plague the isolation embryonic stem cells. Extra-embryonic tissues are large, potentially increasing the number of stem cells that can be extracted. Lastly, the generation and sequestration of cells that form extra-embryonic tissues occurs early in development and may endow resident stem cell populations with enhanced potency. In this review we summarize recent work examining the plasticity and clinical potential of fetal stem cells isolated from extra-embryonic tissues.

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Chondrogenically induced human umbilical cord stromal cells (HUCSCs) formed tiny cell spheres.(A): A shiny-surfaced cell mass. (B): Non-induced cells formed smaller, bulky cell masses. (C): Toluidine blue stain shows the mucopolysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix (pinkish metachromatic areas) and a clear capsule surrounding the entire sphere (arrowhead). (C’): No metachromasia was noted in irregular masses of non-induced cells. (D): In azan-stained cell masses, collagen fibers were clearly distinguished (arrowheads) among many chondrocytes (nuclei in pale red). (E): In cell masses built by the induction of bone marrow MSCs, cells appeared as small groups. Abundant type II (F) and few type I collagen fibers (G) (arrowheads) were detected in chondrogenically induced HUCSCs. (H): Only a few type II collagen fibers were noted in induced bone marrow MSCs. Scale bars = 50 μm (F, G), 100 μm (D, E), s200 μm (C’), and 500 μm (A–C). Reprinted with permission Stem Cells Vol. 25 No. 2 February 2007, pp.319–31.
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fig03: Chondrogenically induced human umbilical cord stromal cells (HUCSCs) formed tiny cell spheres.(A): A shiny-surfaced cell mass. (B): Non-induced cells formed smaller, bulky cell masses. (C): Toluidine blue stain shows the mucopolysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix (pinkish metachromatic areas) and a clear capsule surrounding the entire sphere (arrowhead). (C’): No metachromasia was noted in irregular masses of non-induced cells. (D): In azan-stained cell masses, collagen fibers were clearly distinguished (arrowheads) among many chondrocytes (nuclei in pale red). (E): In cell masses built by the induction of bone marrow MSCs, cells appeared as small groups. Abundant type II (F) and few type I collagen fibers (G) (arrowheads) were detected in chondrogenically induced HUCSCs. (H): Only a few type II collagen fibers were noted in induced bone marrow MSCs. Scale bars = 50 μm (F, G), 100 μm (D, E), s200 μm (C’), and 500 μm (A–C). Reprinted with permission Stem Cells Vol. 25 No. 2 February 2007, pp.319–31.

Mentions: In a more recent study, Karahuseyinoglu et al. have demonstrated the existence of at least two apparently distinct progenitor cell populations within the umbilical cord matrix. Initially distinguished based on morphology, these type 1 and type 2 cells can be further identified by their differential expression of vimentin and cytokeratins [33]. Both populations of cells are multipotent, capable of differentiation to fat, bone and cartilage. Comparison to prototypical adult bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) has revealed interesting differences. Adult MSCs appear to be more adept at in vitro differentiation to adipocytes, demonstrating more rapid lipid accumulation and attaining morphologic maturity more readily than UCMSCs. In contrast, UCMSCs were far more capable of chondogenic differentiation than adult MSCs (Fig. 3). Grown in pellet cultures with chondrogenic media, the UCMSCs formed tightly compacted spheres with a smooth outer surface. The spheres stained for mucopolysaccharides and collagen II, consistent with chondrogenic differentiation. Staining was more intense than that demonstrated for adult MSCs grown under identical conditions. These findings suggest that UCMSCs may be prime candidates for cartilage repair in future clinical applications.


Fetal stem cells from extra-embryonic tissues: do not discard.

Marcus AJ, Woodbury D - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2008)

Chondrogenically induced human umbilical cord stromal cells (HUCSCs) formed tiny cell spheres.(A): A shiny-surfaced cell mass. (B): Non-induced cells formed smaller, bulky cell masses. (C): Toluidine blue stain shows the mucopolysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix (pinkish metachromatic areas) and a clear capsule surrounding the entire sphere (arrowhead). (C’): No metachromasia was noted in irregular masses of non-induced cells. (D): In azan-stained cell masses, collagen fibers were clearly distinguished (arrowheads) among many chondrocytes (nuclei in pale red). (E): In cell masses built by the induction of bone marrow MSCs, cells appeared as small groups. Abundant type II (F) and few type I collagen fibers (G) (arrowheads) were detected in chondrogenically induced HUCSCs. (H): Only a few type II collagen fibers were noted in induced bone marrow MSCs. Scale bars = 50 μm (F, G), 100 μm (D, E), s200 μm (C’), and 500 μm (A–C). Reprinted with permission Stem Cells Vol. 25 No. 2 February 2007, pp.319–31.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401124&req=5

fig03: Chondrogenically induced human umbilical cord stromal cells (HUCSCs) formed tiny cell spheres.(A): A shiny-surfaced cell mass. (B): Non-induced cells formed smaller, bulky cell masses. (C): Toluidine blue stain shows the mucopolysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix (pinkish metachromatic areas) and a clear capsule surrounding the entire sphere (arrowhead). (C’): No metachromasia was noted in irregular masses of non-induced cells. (D): In azan-stained cell masses, collagen fibers were clearly distinguished (arrowheads) among many chondrocytes (nuclei in pale red). (E): In cell masses built by the induction of bone marrow MSCs, cells appeared as small groups. Abundant type II (F) and few type I collagen fibers (G) (arrowheads) were detected in chondrogenically induced HUCSCs. (H): Only a few type II collagen fibers were noted in induced bone marrow MSCs. Scale bars = 50 μm (F, G), 100 μm (D, E), s200 μm (C’), and 500 μm (A–C). Reprinted with permission Stem Cells Vol. 25 No. 2 February 2007, pp.319–31.
Mentions: In a more recent study, Karahuseyinoglu et al. have demonstrated the existence of at least two apparently distinct progenitor cell populations within the umbilical cord matrix. Initially distinguished based on morphology, these type 1 and type 2 cells can be further identified by their differential expression of vimentin and cytokeratins [33]. Both populations of cells are multipotent, capable of differentiation to fat, bone and cartilage. Comparison to prototypical adult bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) has revealed interesting differences. Adult MSCs appear to be more adept at in vitro differentiation to adipocytes, demonstrating more rapid lipid accumulation and attaining morphologic maturity more readily than UCMSCs. In contrast, UCMSCs were far more capable of chondogenic differentiation than adult MSCs (Fig. 3). Grown in pellet cultures with chondrogenic media, the UCMSCs formed tightly compacted spheres with a smooth outer surface. The spheres stained for mucopolysaccharides and collagen II, consistent with chondrogenic differentiation. Staining was more intense than that demonstrated for adult MSCs grown under identical conditions. These findings suggest that UCMSCs may be prime candidates for cartilage repair in future clinical applications.

Bottom Line: Extra-embryonic tissues are large, potentially increasing the number of stem cells that can be extracted.Lastly, the generation and sequestration of cells that form extra-embryonic tissues occurs early in development and may endow resident stem cell populations with enhanced potency.In this review we summarize recent work examining the plasticity and clinical potential of fetal stem cells isolated from extra-embryonic tissues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Ira B. Black Center for Stem Cell Research and the Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854-5635, USA. marcusak@umdnj.edu

ABSTRACT
Stem cells hold promise to treat diseases currently unapproachable, including Parkinson's disease, liver disease and diabetes. Seminal research has demonstrated the ability of embryonic and adult stem cells to differentiate into clinically useful cell types in vitro and in vivo. More recently, the potential of fetal stem cells derived from extra-embryonic tissues has been investigated. Fetal stem cells are particularly appealing for clinical applications. The cells are readily isolated from tissues normally discarded at birth, avoiding ethical concerns that plague the isolation embryonic stem cells. Extra-embryonic tissues are large, potentially increasing the number of stem cells that can be extracted. Lastly, the generation and sequestration of cells that form extra-embryonic tissues occurs early in development and may endow resident stem cell populations with enhanced potency. In this review we summarize recent work examining the plasticity and clinical potential of fetal stem cells isolated from extra-embryonic tissues.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus