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A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions.

Rochelle-Newall E, Nguyen TM, Le TP, Sengtaheuanghoung O, Ribolzi O - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies.Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations.We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: iEES-Paris, UMR 7618 (IRD-UPMC-CNRS-INRA-Université Paris-Est, Université Paris 7), Centre IRD Bondy, France.

ABSTRACT
Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

In developing countries the lack of adequate infrastructures means that contaminated water is used for domestic activities (A). During the rainy season when river and stream flow is high and temperatures are elevated children often play in water contaminated with latrine overflows (B).
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Figure 1: In developing countries the lack of adequate infrastructures means that contaminated water is used for domestic activities (A). During the rainy season when river and stream flow is high and temperatures are elevated children often play in water contaminated with latrine overflows (B).

Mentions: In many countries, poor water quality continues to pose a major threat to human health and access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation continues to be a major brake on development. It is estimated that on a global scale, diarrheal diseases are responsible for deaths of 1.8 million people annually, most of whom are children from developing countries (WHO, 2012). An estimated 88% of that burden is directly attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene. Indeed, in most developing countries access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation remains a problem despite increases in recent years. The economic situation and lack of effective infrastructure means that a large proportion of the population relies on untreated surface and groundwater that can be highly contaminated. Moreover, river water subject to wastewater contamination is often used for washing of clothes and food utensils and for bathing and even cooking (Bain et al., 2014b; Figure 1). This is true for urban and peri-urban areas where population densities are high (Ashbolt, 2004; Kimani-Murage and Ngindu, 2007; Opisa et al., 2012; Bain et al., 2014b) as well as in rural areas where water supplies are often informal and therefore unregulated. Recent work has found that rural drinking water was more contaminated than that of urban water supplies in some parts of Africa and Asia (Bain et al., 2014a,b; Christenson et al., 2014). These authors found that over half the drinking water sources tested in Africa were contaminated as compared to 35% in Asia and that on average, over 40% of rural drinking water sources are contaminated as compared to only 12% in urban areas. Access to clean water is therefore a problem faced by both urban and rural populations in developing countries.


A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions.

Rochelle-Newall E, Nguyen TM, Le TP, Sengtaheuanghoung O, Ribolzi O - Front Microbiol (2015)

In developing countries the lack of adequate infrastructures means that contaminated water is used for domestic activities (A). During the rainy season when river and stream flow is high and temperatures are elevated children often play in water contaminated with latrine overflows (B).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400915&req=5

Figure 1: In developing countries the lack of adequate infrastructures means that contaminated water is used for domestic activities (A). During the rainy season when river and stream flow is high and temperatures are elevated children often play in water contaminated with latrine overflows (B).
Mentions: In many countries, poor water quality continues to pose a major threat to human health and access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation continues to be a major brake on development. It is estimated that on a global scale, diarrheal diseases are responsible for deaths of 1.8 million people annually, most of whom are children from developing countries (WHO, 2012). An estimated 88% of that burden is directly attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene. Indeed, in most developing countries access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation remains a problem despite increases in recent years. The economic situation and lack of effective infrastructure means that a large proportion of the population relies on untreated surface and groundwater that can be highly contaminated. Moreover, river water subject to wastewater contamination is often used for washing of clothes and food utensils and for bathing and even cooking (Bain et al., 2014b; Figure 1). This is true for urban and peri-urban areas where population densities are high (Ashbolt, 2004; Kimani-Murage and Ngindu, 2007; Opisa et al., 2012; Bain et al., 2014b) as well as in rural areas where water supplies are often informal and therefore unregulated. Recent work has found that rural drinking water was more contaminated than that of urban water supplies in some parts of Africa and Asia (Bain et al., 2014a,b; Christenson et al., 2014). These authors found that over half the drinking water sources tested in Africa were contaminated as compared to 35% in Asia and that on average, over 40% of rural drinking water sources are contaminated as compared to only 12% in urban areas. Access to clean water is therefore a problem faced by both urban and rural populations in developing countries.

Bottom Line: This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies.Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations.We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: iEES-Paris, UMR 7618 (IRD-UPMC-CNRS-INRA-Université Paris-Est, Université Paris 7), Centre IRD Bondy, France.

ABSTRACT
Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus