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Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk.

Walshe EA, Patterson MR, Commins S, Roche RA - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Experiment 1 employed a dual-task (DT) paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task) in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation) on gait.Significantly greater DT costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group.No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Maynooth University Maynooth, Kildare, Ireland.

ABSTRACT
The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. In particular, higher-level executive functions are suggested to play a key role in gait and fall-risk, but the specific underlying neurocognitive processes remain unclear. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and falls. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task (DT) paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task) in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation) on gait. All DTs elicited changes in gait for both young and older adults, relative to baseline walking. Significantly greater DT costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group. Experiment 2 compared normal walking gait, seated cognitive performances and concurrent event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in healthy young and older adults, to older adult fallers. No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers. However, an initial late-positivity, considered a potential early P3a, was evident on the Stroop task for older non-fallers, which was notably absent in older fallers. We argue that executive control functions play a prominent role in walking and gait, but the use of neurocognitive processes as a predictor of fall-risk needs further investigation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Dual-task (DT) Costs (DTC; %) on speed from single-task to each DT for young and older adult groups for the five concurrent tasks used in Experiment 1. (B) Dual-task Costs (DTC; %) on stride time (STime) from single-task to each DT for young and older adult groups in Experiment 1. Significant differences are indicated by asterisks: *p < 0.005.
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Figure 1: (A) Dual-task (DT) Costs (DTC; %) on speed from single-task to each DT for young and older adult groups for the five concurrent tasks used in Experiment 1. (B) Dual-task Costs (DTC; %) on stride time (STime) from single-task to each DT for young and older adult groups in Experiment 1. Significant differences are indicated by asterisks: *p < 0.005.

Mentions: In the younger group, there was a greater DTC for speed during the Clock task compared to the Motor DT (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.0; see Figure 1A). In the older group, the DTC for the n-Back (p = 0.004, Cohen’s d = 0.96,), SS (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.45) and Clock task (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.51) was significantly greater than the Motor DTC. Furthermore, the DTCs on speed for the SS (p = 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.66) and Clock tasks (p = 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.82) were also greater than the ABC task’s DTC.


Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk.

Walshe EA, Patterson MR, Commins S, Roche RA - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

(A) Dual-task (DT) Costs (DTC; %) on speed from single-task to each DT for young and older adult groups for the five concurrent tasks used in Experiment 1. (B) Dual-task Costs (DTC; %) on stride time (STime) from single-task to each DT for young and older adult groups in Experiment 1. Significant differences are indicated by asterisks: *p < 0.005.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400911&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Dual-task (DT) Costs (DTC; %) on speed from single-task to each DT for young and older adult groups for the five concurrent tasks used in Experiment 1. (B) Dual-task Costs (DTC; %) on stride time (STime) from single-task to each DT for young and older adult groups in Experiment 1. Significant differences are indicated by asterisks: *p < 0.005.
Mentions: In the younger group, there was a greater DTC for speed during the Clock task compared to the Motor DT (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.0; see Figure 1A). In the older group, the DTC for the n-Back (p = 0.004, Cohen’s d = 0.96,), SS (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.45) and Clock task (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.51) was significantly greater than the Motor DTC. Furthermore, the DTCs on speed for the SS (p = 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.66) and Clock tasks (p = 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.82) were also greater than the ABC task’s DTC.

Bottom Line: Experiment 1 employed a dual-task (DT) paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task) in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation) on gait.Significantly greater DT costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group.No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Maynooth University Maynooth, Kildare, Ireland.

ABSTRACT
The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. In particular, higher-level executive functions are suggested to play a key role in gait and fall-risk, but the specific underlying neurocognitive processes remain unclear. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and falls. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task (DT) paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task) in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation) on gait. All DTs elicited changes in gait for both young and older adults, relative to baseline walking. Significantly greater DT costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group. Experiment 2 compared normal walking gait, seated cognitive performances and concurrent event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in healthy young and older adults, to older adult fallers. No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers. However, an initial late-positivity, considered a potential early P3a, was evident on the Stroop task for older non-fallers, which was notably absent in older fallers. We argue that executive control functions play a prominent role in walking and gait, but the use of neurocognitive processes as a predictor of fall-risk needs further investigation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus