Limits...
Phonology is not accessed earlier than orthography in Chinese written production: evidence for the orthography autonomy hypothesis.

Zhang Q, Wang C - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: For written production, we found an exclusive orthographic effect at an early stage, reflecting a fast and direct link between meaning and graphemic lexicon, and we demonstrated that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning in healthy adults.We also found orthographic and phonological effects at a later stage, reflecting a slow and indirect link between meaning and graphemic lexicon via phonology.For spoken production, we found that orthographic and phonological effects occur simultaneously in spoken production and that the two effects are additive at an early stage but interactive at a later stage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology - Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The contribution of orthographic and phonological codes to written production remains controversial. We report results using a picture-word interference task in which participants were asked to write (Experiments 1 and 2) or to speak (Experiment 3) the names of pictures while trying to ignore visual distractors, and the interval between the target and distractor onset was varied. Distractors were orthographically plus phonologically related, orthographically related, phonologically related, or unrelated to picture names. For written production, we found an exclusive orthographic effect at an early stage, reflecting a fast and direct link between meaning and graphemic lexicon, and we demonstrated that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning in healthy adults. We also found orthographic and phonological effects at a later stage, reflecting a slow and indirect link between meaning and graphemic lexicon via phonology. Furthermore, the absence of an interaction effect of orthographic and phonological facilitation on written latencies suggests that the two effects are additive in general and that they might occur independently in written production in Chinese. For spoken production, we found that orthographic and phonological effects occur simultaneously in spoken production and that the two effects are additive at an early stage but interactive at a later stage. The temporal courses and their interplay of orthographic and phonological effects are dissociative in written and spoken production. Our findings thus support the orthography autonomy hypothesis, rather than the obligatory phonological mediation hypothesis, in written production in Chinese (as a non-alphabetic script).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sketch model of written picture naming (Bonin et al., 2001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400847&req=5

Figure 1: Sketch model of written picture naming (Bonin et al., 2001).

Mentions: This account, however, does not necessarily imply that intact writing is unaffected by phonological codes in unimpaired individuals. Based on Miceli et al.’s (1997) proposal, Bonin et al. (2001) proposed a working model of written picture naming (see Figure 1). When a target picture is presented, the first processing step involves object identification and conceptual preparation in that order. These representations send activation to phonological and orthographic lexicons in parallel, and there are bidirectional connections between two lexicons. The orthographic autonomy hypothesis assumes that semantic activation can directly flow to the orthographic lexicon (by link A in Figure 1). Miceli et al. (1997) distinguished weak and strong versions of the orthographic autonomy hypothesis. The weak version stipulates that both the orthographic and phonological lexicons are directly activated from the semantic system (by link A and link B in Figure 1, respectively) and map directly onto one another (by link C in Figure 1). By contrast, the strong version does not acknowledge the links between two lexicons and assumes that phonology may influence orthographic output by a sublexical route (link D). Bonin et al.’s (2001) model suggests that there are lexical (link C) and sublexical (link D) routes from phonology to orthography in written production.


Phonology is not accessed earlier than orthography in Chinese written production: evidence for the orthography autonomy hypothesis.

Zhang Q, Wang C - Front Psychol (2015)

Sketch model of written picture naming (Bonin et al., 2001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400847&req=5

Figure 1: Sketch model of written picture naming (Bonin et al., 2001).
Mentions: This account, however, does not necessarily imply that intact writing is unaffected by phonological codes in unimpaired individuals. Based on Miceli et al.’s (1997) proposal, Bonin et al. (2001) proposed a working model of written picture naming (see Figure 1). When a target picture is presented, the first processing step involves object identification and conceptual preparation in that order. These representations send activation to phonological and orthographic lexicons in parallel, and there are bidirectional connections between two lexicons. The orthographic autonomy hypothesis assumes that semantic activation can directly flow to the orthographic lexicon (by link A in Figure 1). Miceli et al. (1997) distinguished weak and strong versions of the orthographic autonomy hypothesis. The weak version stipulates that both the orthographic and phonological lexicons are directly activated from the semantic system (by link A and link B in Figure 1, respectively) and map directly onto one another (by link C in Figure 1). By contrast, the strong version does not acknowledge the links between two lexicons and assumes that phonology may influence orthographic output by a sublexical route (link D). Bonin et al.’s (2001) model suggests that there are lexical (link C) and sublexical (link D) routes from phonology to orthography in written production.

Bottom Line: For written production, we found an exclusive orthographic effect at an early stage, reflecting a fast and direct link between meaning and graphemic lexicon, and we demonstrated that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning in healthy adults.We also found orthographic and phonological effects at a later stage, reflecting a slow and indirect link between meaning and graphemic lexicon via phonology.For spoken production, we found that orthographic and phonological effects occur simultaneously in spoken production and that the two effects are additive at an early stage but interactive at a later stage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology - Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The contribution of orthographic and phonological codes to written production remains controversial. We report results using a picture-word interference task in which participants were asked to write (Experiments 1 and 2) or to speak (Experiment 3) the names of pictures while trying to ignore visual distractors, and the interval between the target and distractor onset was varied. Distractors were orthographically plus phonologically related, orthographically related, phonologically related, or unrelated to picture names. For written production, we found an exclusive orthographic effect at an early stage, reflecting a fast and direct link between meaning and graphemic lexicon, and we demonstrated that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning in healthy adults. We also found orthographic and phonological effects at a later stage, reflecting a slow and indirect link between meaning and graphemic lexicon via phonology. Furthermore, the absence of an interaction effect of orthographic and phonological facilitation on written latencies suggests that the two effects are additive in general and that they might occur independently in written production in Chinese. For spoken production, we found that orthographic and phonological effects occur simultaneously in spoken production and that the two effects are additive at an early stage but interactive at a later stage. The temporal courses and their interplay of orthographic and phonological effects are dissociative in written and spoken production. Our findings thus support the orthography autonomy hypothesis, rather than the obligatory phonological mediation hypothesis, in written production in Chinese (as a non-alphabetic script).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus