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Health Impact Assessment of increased cycling to place of work or education in Copenhagen.

Holm AL, Glümer C, Diderichsen F - BMJ Open (2012)

Bottom Line: Obtainment of the proposed increase in cycling could reduce the burden of disease in the study population by 19.5 DALY annually.This study illustrates how quantitative Health Impact Assessment can help clarify potential effects of policies: increased cycling involves opposing effects from different outcomes but with the overall health effect being positive.This result illustrates the importance of designing policies that promote the health benefits and minimise the health risks related to cycling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Section of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantify the effects of increased cycling on both mortality and morbidity.

Design: Health Impact Assessment.

Setting: Cycling to place of work or education in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Population: Effects were calculated based on the working-age population of Copenhagen.

Main outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was change in burden of disease (measured as disability-adjusted life years (DALY)) due to changed exposure to the health determinants physical inactivity, air pollution (particulate matter <2.5 μm) and traffic accidents.

Results: Obtainment of the proposed increase in cycling could reduce the burden of disease in the study population by 19.5 DALY annually. This overall effect comprised a reduction in the burden of disease from health outcomes associated with physical inactivity (76.0 DALY) and an increase in the burden of disease from outcomes associated with air pollution and traffic accidents (5.4 and 51.2 DALY, respectively).

Conclusion: This study illustrates how quantitative Health Impact Assessment can help clarify potential effects of policies: increased cycling involves opposing effects from different outcomes but with the overall health effect being positive. This result illustrates the importance of designing policies that promote the health benefits and minimise the health risks related to cycling.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Overview of the process of health impact assessment with specific focus onquantitative effect analysis. The left side of the figure shows a generalisedHealth Impact Assessment process, while the right side focuses on the effectanalysis stage, involving two subanalyses: (1) the potential effects of the policyon population (or subpopulation) exposure to selected determinants of health(changed exposure) were estimated based on an analysis of the policy, studypopulation characteristic and information on baseline level of exposure todeterminants of health. (2) Next, the potential effect of changed populationexposure to determinants of health on burden of disease was estimated based on theresults of the first subanalysis (change in exposure to health determinants),information on baseline level of burden of disease from the included healthoutcomes and causal effect estimates of the associations between includeddeterminants of health and health outcomes. The change in burden of disease wasestimated for both each determinant of health and each health outcome andaggregated for all included health outcomes (model was developed based on7).
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fig1: Overview of the process of health impact assessment with specific focus onquantitative effect analysis. The left side of the figure shows a generalisedHealth Impact Assessment process, while the right side focuses on the effectanalysis stage, involving two subanalyses: (1) the potential effects of the policyon population (or subpopulation) exposure to selected determinants of health(changed exposure) were estimated based on an analysis of the policy, studypopulation characteristic and information on baseline level of exposure todeterminants of health. (2) Next, the potential effect of changed populationexposure to determinants of health on burden of disease was estimated based on theresults of the first subanalysis (change in exposure to health determinants),information on baseline level of burden of disease from the included healthoutcomes and causal effect estimates of the associations between includeddeterminants of health and health outcomes. The change in burden of disease wasestimated for both each determinant of health and each health outcome andaggregated for all included health outcomes (model was developed based on7).

Mentions: We performed a quantitative HIA of a policy goal of the City of Copenhagen regarding amodal shift from car to bicycle. Figure 1 showsthe analytical approach used in the study: left illustrating the overall HIA process andright showing in more detail the approach used for quantification in the effect analysisstage. The analysis consisted of two analytical steps: (1) the effect of the policy onpopulation exposure to determinants of health and (2) the effect of this changedexposure on population health. We used a Burden of Disease approach to assess the effectof increased cycling on both mortality and morbidity. The methods and data sources usedfor assessing change in exposure and health effects are outlined below.


Health Impact Assessment of increased cycling to place of work or education in Copenhagen.

Holm AL, Glümer C, Diderichsen F - BMJ Open (2012)

Overview of the process of health impact assessment with specific focus onquantitative effect analysis. The left side of the figure shows a generalisedHealth Impact Assessment process, while the right side focuses on the effectanalysis stage, involving two subanalyses: (1) the potential effects of the policyon population (or subpopulation) exposure to selected determinants of health(changed exposure) were estimated based on an analysis of the policy, studypopulation characteristic and information on baseline level of exposure todeterminants of health. (2) Next, the potential effect of changed populationexposure to determinants of health on burden of disease was estimated based on theresults of the first subanalysis (change in exposure to health determinants),information on baseline level of burden of disease from the included healthoutcomes and causal effect estimates of the associations between includeddeterminants of health and health outcomes. The change in burden of disease wasestimated for both each determinant of health and each health outcome andaggregated for all included health outcomes (model was developed based on7).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400672&req=5

fig1: Overview of the process of health impact assessment with specific focus onquantitative effect analysis. The left side of the figure shows a generalisedHealth Impact Assessment process, while the right side focuses on the effectanalysis stage, involving two subanalyses: (1) the potential effects of the policyon population (or subpopulation) exposure to selected determinants of health(changed exposure) were estimated based on an analysis of the policy, studypopulation characteristic and information on baseline level of exposure todeterminants of health. (2) Next, the potential effect of changed populationexposure to determinants of health on burden of disease was estimated based on theresults of the first subanalysis (change in exposure to health determinants),information on baseline level of burden of disease from the included healthoutcomes and causal effect estimates of the associations between includeddeterminants of health and health outcomes. The change in burden of disease wasestimated for both each determinant of health and each health outcome andaggregated for all included health outcomes (model was developed based on7).
Mentions: We performed a quantitative HIA of a policy goal of the City of Copenhagen regarding amodal shift from car to bicycle. Figure 1 showsthe analytical approach used in the study: left illustrating the overall HIA process andright showing in more detail the approach used for quantification in the effect analysisstage. The analysis consisted of two analytical steps: (1) the effect of the policy onpopulation exposure to determinants of health and (2) the effect of this changedexposure on population health. We used a Burden of Disease approach to assess the effectof increased cycling on both mortality and morbidity. The methods and data sources usedfor assessing change in exposure and health effects are outlined below.

Bottom Line: Obtainment of the proposed increase in cycling could reduce the burden of disease in the study population by 19.5 DALY annually.This study illustrates how quantitative Health Impact Assessment can help clarify potential effects of policies: increased cycling involves opposing effects from different outcomes but with the overall health effect being positive.This result illustrates the importance of designing policies that promote the health benefits and minimise the health risks related to cycling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Section of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantify the effects of increased cycling on both mortality and morbidity.

Design: Health Impact Assessment.

Setting: Cycling to place of work or education in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Population: Effects were calculated based on the working-age population of Copenhagen.

Main outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was change in burden of disease (measured as disability-adjusted life years (DALY)) due to changed exposure to the health determinants physical inactivity, air pollution (particulate matter <2.5 μm) and traffic accidents.

Results: Obtainment of the proposed increase in cycling could reduce the burden of disease in the study population by 19.5 DALY annually. This overall effect comprised a reduction in the burden of disease from health outcomes associated with physical inactivity (76.0 DALY) and an increase in the burden of disease from outcomes associated with air pollution and traffic accidents (5.4 and 51.2 DALY, respectively).

Conclusion: This study illustrates how quantitative Health Impact Assessment can help clarify potential effects of policies: increased cycling involves opposing effects from different outcomes but with the overall health effect being positive. This result illustrates the importance of designing policies that promote the health benefits and minimise the health risks related to cycling.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus