Long-term expandable SOX9+ chondrogenic ectomesenchymal cells from human pluripotent stem cells.
Bottom Line: When "primed" with TGFβ, such cells efficiently formed translucent cartilage particles, which were completely mineralized in 12 weeks in immunocompromized mice.Ectomesenchyme is a source of many craniofacial bone and cartilage structures.The method we describe for obtaining a large quantity of human ectomesenchymal cells will help to model craniofacial disorders in vitro and potentially provide cells for the repair of craniofacial damage.
Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Cartilage particles generated under standard “PDGF/TGFβ/BMP” conditions (Umeda et al., 2012) with the CD271+CD73+ ectomesenchymal cells, derived either from a mixture of the 6-day differentiated H9 hESCs or from the FACS-isolated CD271hiCD73− neural crest-like progeny (Figures 7C and 7D), were all mineralized after subcutaneous transplantation into immunocompromized mice for 8–12 weeks (black area with von Kossa staining), implying the capacity of the CD271+CD73+ cell to induce endochondral ossification. Consistently, the detection of RUNX2 transcript (2D-micromass culture, Figure 7E) and COL10A1 transcript (3D-pellet culture, Figure 7F) during chondrogenesis suggested that the ectomesenchymal cell-derived chondrocytes matured into hypertrophic chondrocytes.
Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA.