Long-term expandable SOX9+ chondrogenic ectomesenchymal cells from human pluripotent stem cells.
Bottom Line: When "primed" with TGFβ, such cells efficiently formed translucent cartilage particles, which were completely mineralized in 12 weeks in immunocompromized mice.Ectomesenchyme is a source of many craniofacial bone and cartilage structures.The method we describe for obtaining a large quantity of human ectomesenchymal cells will help to model craniofacial disorders in vitro and potentially provide cells for the repair of craniofacial damage.
Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The ectomesenchymal cells expanded in CDM in the presence of FGF2 or FGF2+SB431542 were subjected to 3D-pellet culture under the PDGF/TGFβ/BMP condition. The early (p2) FGF2-expanded cells formed a large cartilage particle that stained metachromatically (pink to purple) with Toluidine Blue, but then lost such chondrogenic activity by p4–p5 (Figures 4A and 4C), in keeping with the loss of the CD271+ cell population (Figures 2C and S3D).
Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA.