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Bridging the gap between postembryonic cell lineages and identified embryonic neuroblasts in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila melanogaster.

Birkholz O, Rickert C, Nowak J, Coban IC, Technau GM - Biol Open (2015)

Bottom Line: Here we provide the missing link between the two systems for all lineages in the thoracic and abdominal neuromeres.Using the Flybow technique, embryonic neuroblasts were identified by their characteristic and unique lineages in the living embryo and their further development was traced into the late larval stage.This comprehensive analysis provides the first complete view of which embryonic neuroblasts are postembryonically reactivated along the anterior/posterior-axis of the VNC, and reveals the relationship between projection patterns of primary and secondary sublineages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Genetics, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Segment-specific pattern and identities of embryonic neuroblasts, which are reactivated in the larva.Right hemineuromeres of the indicated segments are schematically shown. In each NB its embryonic name (upper row) according to Broadus et al. (Broadus et al., 1995) and Doe (Doe, 1992) and its postembryonic cell lineage (lower row) according to Brown and Truman (Brown and Truman, 2009), Kuert et al. (Kuert et al., 2014) and Truman et al. (Truman et al., 2004) are indicated, except for A2-A7, where the lower row indicates the name of the postembryonic progenitor according to Truman and Bate (Truman and Bate, 1988). NBs which are reactivated in the larva, are highlighted in green; those which are mitotically inactive are white; other colours mark NBs with segment-specific characteristics: (1) Lineage 18 was not identified in T1. (2) Lineage 11 was not identified in T3. (3) NB2-2 and NB5-3 only form a few secondary neurons in A1 and reveal PCD within their lineage. (4) NB6-2 is only reactivated in A2, but not posterior to it.
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f12: Segment-specific pattern and identities of embryonic neuroblasts, which are reactivated in the larva.Right hemineuromeres of the indicated segments are schematically shown. In each NB its embryonic name (upper row) according to Broadus et al. (Broadus et al., 1995) and Doe (Doe, 1992) and its postembryonic cell lineage (lower row) according to Brown and Truman (Brown and Truman, 2009), Kuert et al. (Kuert et al., 2014) and Truman et al. (Truman et al., 2004) are indicated, except for A2-A7, where the lower row indicates the name of the postembryonic progenitor according to Truman and Bate (Truman and Bate, 1988). NBs which are reactivated in the larva, are highlighted in green; those which are mitotically inactive are white; other colours mark NBs with segment-specific characteristics: (1) Lineage 18 was not identified in T1. (2) Lineage 11 was not identified in T3. (3) NB2-2 and NB5-3 only form a few secondary neurons in A1 and reveal PCD within their lineage. (4) NB6-2 is only reactivated in A2, but not posterior to it.

Mentions: Which of the 32 (+1 unpaired) embryonic NBs per hemineuromere reenter the cell cycle in the larva depends first of all on the segment in which they are located (summarised in Fig. 12). The complete set of 24 (+1 unpaired) secondary cell lineages (per hemineuromere) within the VNC can be found only in T2 (Brown and Truman, 2009; Truman et al., 2004), which resembles the ground state requiring no Hox-input (Lewis, 1978). Only nine NBs are not reactivated in this hemisegment. These preferentially comprise late delaminating NBs (e.g. NB2-3, NB5-1, NB7-3), but there are also exceptions from this tendency (e.g. NB5-6). In contrast, the majority of reactivated NBs are early-born. Thus, in addition to early patterning-genes that specify inter-segmental (Hox-genes; reviewed by Technau et al., 2014) and intra-segmental NB-identities (segment polarity- and columnar-genes; reviewed by Bhat, 1999; Skeath, 1999), the temporal cascade of transcription factors that a NB subsequently expresses (Almeida and Bray, 2005; Isshiki et al., 2001) might influence whether a NB becomes reactivated in the larva or not (see below).


Bridging the gap between postembryonic cell lineages and identified embryonic neuroblasts in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila melanogaster.

Birkholz O, Rickert C, Nowak J, Coban IC, Technau GM - Biol Open (2015)

Segment-specific pattern and identities of embryonic neuroblasts, which are reactivated in the larva.Right hemineuromeres of the indicated segments are schematically shown. In each NB its embryonic name (upper row) according to Broadus et al. (Broadus et al., 1995) and Doe (Doe, 1992) and its postembryonic cell lineage (lower row) according to Brown and Truman (Brown and Truman, 2009), Kuert et al. (Kuert et al., 2014) and Truman et al. (Truman et al., 2004) are indicated, except for A2-A7, where the lower row indicates the name of the postembryonic progenitor according to Truman and Bate (Truman and Bate, 1988). NBs which are reactivated in the larva, are highlighted in green; those which are mitotically inactive are white; other colours mark NBs with segment-specific characteristics: (1) Lineage 18 was not identified in T1. (2) Lineage 11 was not identified in T3. (3) NB2-2 and NB5-3 only form a few secondary neurons in A1 and reveal PCD within their lineage. (4) NB6-2 is only reactivated in A2, but not posterior to it.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400586&req=5

f12: Segment-specific pattern and identities of embryonic neuroblasts, which are reactivated in the larva.Right hemineuromeres of the indicated segments are schematically shown. In each NB its embryonic name (upper row) according to Broadus et al. (Broadus et al., 1995) and Doe (Doe, 1992) and its postembryonic cell lineage (lower row) according to Brown and Truman (Brown and Truman, 2009), Kuert et al. (Kuert et al., 2014) and Truman et al. (Truman et al., 2004) are indicated, except for A2-A7, where the lower row indicates the name of the postembryonic progenitor according to Truman and Bate (Truman and Bate, 1988). NBs which are reactivated in the larva, are highlighted in green; those which are mitotically inactive are white; other colours mark NBs with segment-specific characteristics: (1) Lineage 18 was not identified in T1. (2) Lineage 11 was not identified in T3. (3) NB2-2 and NB5-3 only form a few secondary neurons in A1 and reveal PCD within their lineage. (4) NB6-2 is only reactivated in A2, but not posterior to it.
Mentions: Which of the 32 (+1 unpaired) embryonic NBs per hemineuromere reenter the cell cycle in the larva depends first of all on the segment in which they are located (summarised in Fig. 12). The complete set of 24 (+1 unpaired) secondary cell lineages (per hemineuromere) within the VNC can be found only in T2 (Brown and Truman, 2009; Truman et al., 2004), which resembles the ground state requiring no Hox-input (Lewis, 1978). Only nine NBs are not reactivated in this hemisegment. These preferentially comprise late delaminating NBs (e.g. NB2-3, NB5-1, NB7-3), but there are also exceptions from this tendency (e.g. NB5-6). In contrast, the majority of reactivated NBs are early-born. Thus, in addition to early patterning-genes that specify inter-segmental (Hox-genes; reviewed by Technau et al., 2014) and intra-segmental NB-identities (segment polarity- and columnar-genes; reviewed by Bhat, 1999; Skeath, 1999), the temporal cascade of transcription factors that a NB subsequently expresses (Almeida and Bray, 2005; Isshiki et al., 2001) might influence whether a NB becomes reactivated in the larva or not (see below).

Bottom Line: Here we provide the missing link between the two systems for all lineages in the thoracic and abdominal neuromeres.Using the Flybow technique, embryonic neuroblasts were identified by their characteristic and unique lineages in the living embryo and their further development was traced into the late larval stage.This comprehensive analysis provides the first complete view of which embryonic neuroblasts are postembryonically reactivated along the anterior/posterior-axis of the VNC, and reveals the relationship between projection patterns of primary and secondary sublineages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Genetics, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus