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Revalidation of the spider genus Citharoceps Chamberlin, 1924 (Araneae, Segestriidae).

Giroti AM, Brescovit AD - Zookeys (2015)

Bottom Line: In the present study, Citharoceps is revalidated and redescribed based on the occurrence of the stridulatory apparatus in Citharocepsfidicina and Segestriacruzana Chamberlin & Ivie, and also on the presence of distinguishable characters, such as the length of the labium-sternum junction, ventral median spine on male metatarsi I, and strong sclerotized interpulmonary fold in females, forming a conspicuous median flap.Segestriacruzana is transfered to Citharoceps, with Citharocepscalifornica removed from the synonym of Citharocepsfidicina, and proposed as a junior synonym of Citharocepscruzana, due to the similarity between the additional material examined and the original description.Males of Citharocepsfidicina and Citharocepscruzana are described for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa 14, 321, 05508-090, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil ; Laboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan, Avenida Vital Brazil, 1500, 05503-090, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Citharoceps Chamberlin was diagnosed by the presence of a very distinctive stridulatory apparatus composed of two patches of ridges on the sides of the cephalic region, and a stridulatory thorn on the prolateral region of the femur I. Currently, this genus is a junior synonym of Ariadna Audouin, with the assumption that the stridulatory apparatus could constitute an exclusive feature of its unique known species, Citharocepsfidicina Chamberlin, currently senior synonym of Citharocepscalifornica Chamberlin & Ivie. In the present study, Citharoceps is revalidated and redescribed based on the occurrence of the stridulatory apparatus in Citharocepsfidicina and Segestriacruzana Chamberlin & Ivie, and also on the presence of distinguishable characters, such as the length of the labium-sternum junction, ventral median spine on male metatarsi I, and strong sclerotized interpulmonary fold in females, forming a conspicuous median flap. Segestriacruzana is transfered to Citharoceps, with Citharocepscalifornica removed from the synonym of Citharocepsfidicina, and proposed as a junior synonym of Citharocepscruzana, due to the similarity between the additional material examined and the original description. Males of Citharocepsfidicina and Citharocepscruzana are described for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Citharocepsfidicina. Male from Cabrillo N. M., San Diego (CNMP) (A–B) female from Baja California, Mexico (CAS 9039518) (C–D). A left palp, prolateral view B same, retrolateral view, white dashed line indicates the narrowing of the sperm duct C internal female genitalia, lateral view, and D ventral view. White scale bars: 1 mm.
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Figure 6: Citharocepsfidicina. Male from Cabrillo N. M., San Diego (CNMP) (A–B) female from Baja California, Mexico (CAS 9039518) (C–D). A left palp, prolateral view B same, retrolateral view, white dashed line indicates the narrowing of the sperm duct C internal female genitalia, lateral view, and D ventral view. White scale bars: 1 mm.

Mentions: The specimens examined are deposited in the American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH; L. Prendini), California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (CAS; C. E. Griswold), Collection of the Cabrillo National Monument Park, San Diego (CNMP; K. Lombardo), Darrel Ubick collection, San Francisco (CDU), Instituto Butantan, São Paulo (IBSP; A. D. Brescovit), and Queensland Museum, Brisbane (QM; R. Raven). The morphological examinations and descriptions follow Grismado (2008) and were made under Leica MZ6 and MZ12 stereomicroscope. Spine notation was modified from Grismado (2008) with the absence of the term “apical” (ap), and description of the leg IV spination. Measurements are in millimeters. The male genitalia was divided into bulb and embolus by the narrowing of the spermatic duct, where it has a less sclerotized region (Figs 6A–B, 8A–C; see Lipke et al. 2014, fig. 10). The investigation of the internal female genitalia followed three steps: (I) dissection of the ventral anterior region of the abdomen; (II) digestion of the dissected material with Ultrazime® contact lenses cleaner enzyme in 1 tablet/5 ml distilled water for 24 hours; (III) posterior treatment with heated KOH for 20 minutes, according to Platnick et al. (1999). Spigot nomenclature followed Platnick et al. (1991) and Griswold et al. (2005). Illustrations were made under a Zeiss Axioscop 20, with a camera lucida attached. Photographs were taken with a Leica DFC 500 digital camera attached to a Leica MZ16A stereomicroscope. Extended focal range photos were composed with Leica Application Suite 3.3. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the body parts were dehydrated through a series of graded ethanol (80% to 100%), dried by critical-point drying method, mounted on metal stubs using adhesive copper tape and nail polish for fixation, and sputter coated with gold. SEM photographs were taken with a FEI Quanta 250 scanning electron microscope from the Laboratório de Biologia Celular of the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo. Abbreviations: AC–aciniform gland spigot; ALS–anterior lateral spinnerets; AR–anterior receptaculum; B–bulb; d–dorsal; DL–dorsal lobe; E–embolus; GD–glandular ducts plate; IF–interpumonary fold; LS–less sclerotized portion of the sperm duct; mAP–minor ampulate gland spigot; MAP–major ampulate gland spigot; p–prolateral; PI–piriform gland spigot; PLS–posterior lateral spinnerets; PMS–posterior median spinnerets; PR–posterior receptaculum; r–retrolateral; T–tracheal trunk; UE–uterus externus; v–ventral; VL–ventral lobe; vp–ventroprolateral; vr–ventroretrolateral. Geographical coordinates were obtained with Google Earth (Lat/Lon-WGS84).


Revalidation of the spider genus Citharoceps Chamberlin, 1924 (Araneae, Segestriidae).

Giroti AM, Brescovit AD - Zookeys (2015)

Citharocepsfidicina. Male from Cabrillo N. M., San Diego (CNMP) (A–B) female from Baja California, Mexico (CAS 9039518) (C–D). A left palp, prolateral view B same, retrolateral view, white dashed line indicates the narrowing of the sperm duct C internal female genitalia, lateral view, and D ventral view. White scale bars: 1 mm.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400402&req=5

Figure 6: Citharocepsfidicina. Male from Cabrillo N. M., San Diego (CNMP) (A–B) female from Baja California, Mexico (CAS 9039518) (C–D). A left palp, prolateral view B same, retrolateral view, white dashed line indicates the narrowing of the sperm duct C internal female genitalia, lateral view, and D ventral view. White scale bars: 1 mm.
Mentions: The specimens examined are deposited in the American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH; L. Prendini), California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (CAS; C. E. Griswold), Collection of the Cabrillo National Monument Park, San Diego (CNMP; K. Lombardo), Darrel Ubick collection, San Francisco (CDU), Instituto Butantan, São Paulo (IBSP; A. D. Brescovit), and Queensland Museum, Brisbane (QM; R. Raven). The morphological examinations and descriptions follow Grismado (2008) and were made under Leica MZ6 and MZ12 stereomicroscope. Spine notation was modified from Grismado (2008) with the absence of the term “apical” (ap), and description of the leg IV spination. Measurements are in millimeters. The male genitalia was divided into bulb and embolus by the narrowing of the spermatic duct, where it has a less sclerotized region (Figs 6A–B, 8A–C; see Lipke et al. 2014, fig. 10). The investigation of the internal female genitalia followed three steps: (I) dissection of the ventral anterior region of the abdomen; (II) digestion of the dissected material with Ultrazime® contact lenses cleaner enzyme in 1 tablet/5 ml distilled water for 24 hours; (III) posterior treatment with heated KOH for 20 minutes, according to Platnick et al. (1999). Spigot nomenclature followed Platnick et al. (1991) and Griswold et al. (2005). Illustrations were made under a Zeiss Axioscop 20, with a camera lucida attached. Photographs were taken with a Leica DFC 500 digital camera attached to a Leica MZ16A stereomicroscope. Extended focal range photos were composed with Leica Application Suite 3.3. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the body parts were dehydrated through a series of graded ethanol (80% to 100%), dried by critical-point drying method, mounted on metal stubs using adhesive copper tape and nail polish for fixation, and sputter coated with gold. SEM photographs were taken with a FEI Quanta 250 scanning electron microscope from the Laboratório de Biologia Celular of the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo. Abbreviations: AC–aciniform gland spigot; ALS–anterior lateral spinnerets; AR–anterior receptaculum; B–bulb; d–dorsal; DL–dorsal lobe; E–embolus; GD–glandular ducts plate; IF–interpumonary fold; LS–less sclerotized portion of the sperm duct; mAP–minor ampulate gland spigot; MAP–major ampulate gland spigot; p–prolateral; PI–piriform gland spigot; PLS–posterior lateral spinnerets; PMS–posterior median spinnerets; PR–posterior receptaculum; r–retrolateral; T–tracheal trunk; UE–uterus externus; v–ventral; VL–ventral lobe; vp–ventroprolateral; vr–ventroretrolateral. Geographical coordinates were obtained with Google Earth (Lat/Lon-WGS84).

Bottom Line: In the present study, Citharoceps is revalidated and redescribed based on the occurrence of the stridulatory apparatus in Citharocepsfidicina and Segestriacruzana Chamberlin & Ivie, and also on the presence of distinguishable characters, such as the length of the labium-sternum junction, ventral median spine on male metatarsi I, and strong sclerotized interpulmonary fold in females, forming a conspicuous median flap.Segestriacruzana is transfered to Citharoceps, with Citharocepscalifornica removed from the synonym of Citharocepsfidicina, and proposed as a junior synonym of Citharocepscruzana, due to the similarity between the additional material examined and the original description.Males of Citharocepsfidicina and Citharocepscruzana are described for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa 14, 321, 05508-090, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil ; Laboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan, Avenida Vital Brazil, 1500, 05503-090, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Citharoceps Chamberlin was diagnosed by the presence of a very distinctive stridulatory apparatus composed of two patches of ridges on the sides of the cephalic region, and a stridulatory thorn on the prolateral region of the femur I. Currently, this genus is a junior synonym of Ariadna Audouin, with the assumption that the stridulatory apparatus could constitute an exclusive feature of its unique known species, Citharocepsfidicina Chamberlin, currently senior synonym of Citharocepscalifornica Chamberlin & Ivie. In the present study, Citharoceps is revalidated and redescribed based on the occurrence of the stridulatory apparatus in Citharocepsfidicina and Segestriacruzana Chamberlin & Ivie, and also on the presence of distinguishable characters, such as the length of the labium-sternum junction, ventral median spine on male metatarsi I, and strong sclerotized interpulmonary fold in females, forming a conspicuous median flap. Segestriacruzana is transfered to Citharoceps, with Citharocepscalifornica removed from the synonym of Citharocepsfidicina, and proposed as a junior synonym of Citharocepscruzana, due to the similarity between the additional material examined and the original description. Males of Citharocepsfidicina and Citharocepscruzana are described for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus