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Propyl gallate inhibits adipogenesis by stimulating extracellular signal-related kinases in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Lee JE, Kim JM, Jang HJ, Lim SY, Choi SJ, Lee NH, Suh PG, Choi UK - Mol. Cells (2015)

Bottom Line: Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2).Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Nano-Bioscience and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the functional roles of PG in various cell types are well characterized, it is unknown whether PG has effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that PG could inhibit adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) by decreasing the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2). PG inhibited adipogenesis in hAMSCs through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Decreased adipogenesis following PG treatment was recovered in response to ERK blocking. Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Propyl gallate (PG) inhibits lipid accumulation in hAMSCs. (A) Chemical structure of PG; (B) Confluent hAMSCs were cultured in GM or AIM with various concentrations of PG. The media were changed every 3 days. Cells were stained with Oil Red-O on day 14. Red staining indicated the presence of neutral lipids. Images are representative of experiment performed in triplicates; (C) For quantitative analysis, Oil Red-O staining was quantified by exposing the cells to isopropanol for 30 min. The absorbance of the supernatant was measured at 540 nm using a Biotrak II plate reader. Mean values were obtained from day 14 with the value of GM-cultured cells as 1.0. Other values were normalized against the value of GM-cultured cells. Values are presented as mean ± SD. Error bars indicated the range of results. Experiment was performed in triplicates. Results were representative of three independent experiments (magnification × 100) (*p < 0.05); (D) Confluent hAMSCs were cultured in GM or AIM with or without 1∼100 μM PG. Cells were harvested at the indicated times. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Values are presented as mean ± SD. Error bars indicate the range of results from experiment performed in triplicates (*p < 0.05). Results are representative of three independent experiments. AIM: adipogenic induction medium; GM: growth medium; hAMSCs: human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells; MTT: methyl thiazolyltetrazolium; SD: standard deviation.
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f1-molce-38-4-336: Propyl gallate (PG) inhibits lipid accumulation in hAMSCs. (A) Chemical structure of PG; (B) Confluent hAMSCs were cultured in GM or AIM with various concentrations of PG. The media were changed every 3 days. Cells were stained with Oil Red-O on day 14. Red staining indicated the presence of neutral lipids. Images are representative of experiment performed in triplicates; (C) For quantitative analysis, Oil Red-O staining was quantified by exposing the cells to isopropanol for 30 min. The absorbance of the supernatant was measured at 540 nm using a Biotrak II plate reader. Mean values were obtained from day 14 with the value of GM-cultured cells as 1.0. Other values were normalized against the value of GM-cultured cells. Values are presented as mean ± SD. Error bars indicated the range of results. Experiment was performed in triplicates. Results were representative of three independent experiments (magnification × 100) (*p < 0.05); (D) Confluent hAMSCs were cultured in GM or AIM with or without 1∼100 μM PG. Cells were harvested at the indicated times. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Values are presented as mean ± SD. Error bars indicate the range of results from experiment performed in triplicates (*p < 0.05). Results are representative of three independent experiments. AIM: adipogenic induction medium; GM: growth medium; hAMSCs: human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells; MTT: methyl thiazolyltetrazolium; SD: standard deviation.

Mentions: Propyl gallate (PG, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester, Fig. 1A), an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid with n-propanol, is used as an antioxidant in a wide range of foods, cosmetics, hair products, adhesives, lubricants, food packing materials, pharmaceuticals, and personal hygiene products (Han et al., 2010). PG prevents fat oxidation as well as other synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), and ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (Foti et al., 2010). In the food industry, PG is added to vegetable oil, mayonnaise, meat, soups, milk powder, spices, candies, snacks, vitamins, and chewing gums. It is practically used as a food additive (particularly in oils and fats). It is authorized for use in Korea and many others countries (Daniel, 1986). Because of its prevalent usage, the potential toxicity of PG has been investigated in vivo (Dacre, 1974; Wu et al., 1994) and in vitro to assess its various properties, including cytogenetic effects (Abdo et al., 1986) and mutagenicity (Rosin and Stich, 1980).


Propyl gallate inhibits adipogenesis by stimulating extracellular signal-related kinases in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Lee JE, Kim JM, Jang HJ, Lim SY, Choi SJ, Lee NH, Suh PG, Choi UK - Mol. Cells (2015)

Propyl gallate (PG) inhibits lipid accumulation in hAMSCs. (A) Chemical structure of PG; (B) Confluent hAMSCs were cultured in GM or AIM with various concentrations of PG. The media were changed every 3 days. Cells were stained with Oil Red-O on day 14. Red staining indicated the presence of neutral lipids. Images are representative of experiment performed in triplicates; (C) For quantitative analysis, Oil Red-O staining was quantified by exposing the cells to isopropanol for 30 min. The absorbance of the supernatant was measured at 540 nm using a Biotrak II plate reader. Mean values were obtained from day 14 with the value of GM-cultured cells as 1.0. Other values were normalized against the value of GM-cultured cells. Values are presented as mean ± SD. Error bars indicated the range of results. Experiment was performed in triplicates. Results were representative of three independent experiments (magnification × 100) (*p < 0.05); (D) Confluent hAMSCs were cultured in GM or AIM with or without 1∼100 μM PG. Cells were harvested at the indicated times. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Values are presented as mean ± SD. Error bars indicate the range of results from experiment performed in triplicates (*p < 0.05). Results are representative of three independent experiments. AIM: adipogenic induction medium; GM: growth medium; hAMSCs: human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells; MTT: methyl thiazolyltetrazolium; SD: standard deviation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400308&req=5

f1-molce-38-4-336: Propyl gallate (PG) inhibits lipid accumulation in hAMSCs. (A) Chemical structure of PG; (B) Confluent hAMSCs were cultured in GM or AIM with various concentrations of PG. The media were changed every 3 days. Cells were stained with Oil Red-O on day 14. Red staining indicated the presence of neutral lipids. Images are representative of experiment performed in triplicates; (C) For quantitative analysis, Oil Red-O staining was quantified by exposing the cells to isopropanol for 30 min. The absorbance of the supernatant was measured at 540 nm using a Biotrak II plate reader. Mean values were obtained from day 14 with the value of GM-cultured cells as 1.0. Other values were normalized against the value of GM-cultured cells. Values are presented as mean ± SD. Error bars indicated the range of results. Experiment was performed in triplicates. Results were representative of three independent experiments (magnification × 100) (*p < 0.05); (D) Confluent hAMSCs were cultured in GM or AIM with or without 1∼100 μM PG. Cells were harvested at the indicated times. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Values are presented as mean ± SD. Error bars indicate the range of results from experiment performed in triplicates (*p < 0.05). Results are representative of three independent experiments. AIM: adipogenic induction medium; GM: growth medium; hAMSCs: human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells; MTT: methyl thiazolyltetrazolium; SD: standard deviation.
Mentions: Propyl gallate (PG, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester, Fig. 1A), an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid with n-propanol, is used as an antioxidant in a wide range of foods, cosmetics, hair products, adhesives, lubricants, food packing materials, pharmaceuticals, and personal hygiene products (Han et al., 2010). PG prevents fat oxidation as well as other synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), and ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (Foti et al., 2010). In the food industry, PG is added to vegetable oil, mayonnaise, meat, soups, milk powder, spices, candies, snacks, vitamins, and chewing gums. It is practically used as a food additive (particularly in oils and fats). It is authorized for use in Korea and many others countries (Daniel, 1986). Because of its prevalent usage, the potential toxicity of PG has been investigated in vivo (Dacre, 1974; Wu et al., 1994) and in vitro to assess its various properties, including cytogenetic effects (Abdo et al., 1986) and mutagenicity (Rosin and Stich, 1980).

Bottom Line: Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2).Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Nano-Bioscience and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the functional roles of PG in various cell types are well characterized, it is unknown whether PG has effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that PG could inhibit adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) by decreasing the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2). PG inhibited adipogenesis in hAMSCs through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Decreased adipogenesis following PG treatment was recovered in response to ERK blocking. Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus