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NUTRALYS(®) pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety.

Overduin J, Guérin-Deremaux L, Wils D, Lambers TT - Food Nutr Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro.Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals.These results indicate that 1) pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2) pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health, NIZO Food Research, Ede, The Netherlands; info@nizo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Pea protein (from Pisum sativum) is under consideration as a sustainable, satiety-inducing food ingredient.

Objective: In the current study, pea-protein-induced physiological signals relevant to satiety were characterized in vitro via gastric digestion kinetics and in vivo by monitoring post-meal gastrointestinal hormonal responses in rats.

Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS(®) pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY]) responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal) meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS(®) pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein).

Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals.

Conclusions: These results indicate that 1) pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2) pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Two-hour viscosity profiles during simulated gastric digestion (SIMPHYD) of solutions of pea protein, bovine whey and casein. After a 5-min baseline measurement, acidification of the medium toward pH 1.5–2 was started and completed after circa 15 min. Then, gastric digestive enzymes were added to the medium.
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Figure 0002: Two-hour viscosity profiles during simulated gastric digestion (SIMPHYD) of solutions of pea protein, bovine whey and casein. After a 5-min baseline measurement, acidification of the medium toward pH 1.5–2 was started and completed after circa 15 min. Then, gastric digestive enzymes were added to the medium.

Mentions: The observed digestion kinetics were different for the three tested proteins (Fig. 2). For casein solutions, when the pH of the medium was lowered toward casein's isoelectric point, a rise in viscosity occurred that remained stable and elevated throughout the 2-h measurement period. Presumably, this behavior was related to the formation of a protein network by aggregation of casein molecules. In vivo, these fragments are broken down by the concerted action of gastrointestinal proteases and antral grinding. Upon addition of gastric digestive enzymes viscosity of the casein-containing medium declined, although it remained higher than that of whey and pea-protein solutions throughout the 2-h monitoring period. In contrast, and in line with expectations, whey protein displayed a relative stable low-viscosity profile, attributable to the absence of protein aggregation. Finally, digestion of pea protein was characterized by an increase of viscosity of the medium when the pH of the medium was brought down, approaching the isoelectric point of pea protein. This profile was probably related to solubility of pea protein, as confirmed by direct solubility measurements (data not shown) and particle-size measurements in pea-protein solutions at various pH levels. Observed pea-protein particle sizes ranged between 1.7 and 267 µm (median: 80 µm), which is considerably smaller than the 2-mm (i.e. 2,000 µm) threshold for prolonged gastric retention seen with slowly digestible proteins like casein.


NUTRALYS(®) pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety.

Overduin J, Guérin-Deremaux L, Wils D, Lambers TT - Food Nutr Res (2015)

Two-hour viscosity profiles during simulated gastric digestion (SIMPHYD) of solutions of pea protein, bovine whey and casein. After a 5-min baseline measurement, acidification of the medium toward pH 1.5–2 was started and completed after circa 15 min. Then, gastric digestive enzymes were added to the medium.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400298&req=5

Figure 0002: Two-hour viscosity profiles during simulated gastric digestion (SIMPHYD) of solutions of pea protein, bovine whey and casein. After a 5-min baseline measurement, acidification of the medium toward pH 1.5–2 was started and completed after circa 15 min. Then, gastric digestive enzymes were added to the medium.
Mentions: The observed digestion kinetics were different for the three tested proteins (Fig. 2). For casein solutions, when the pH of the medium was lowered toward casein's isoelectric point, a rise in viscosity occurred that remained stable and elevated throughout the 2-h measurement period. Presumably, this behavior was related to the formation of a protein network by aggregation of casein molecules. In vivo, these fragments are broken down by the concerted action of gastrointestinal proteases and antral grinding. Upon addition of gastric digestive enzymes viscosity of the casein-containing medium declined, although it remained higher than that of whey and pea-protein solutions throughout the 2-h monitoring period. In contrast, and in line with expectations, whey protein displayed a relative stable low-viscosity profile, attributable to the absence of protein aggregation. Finally, digestion of pea protein was characterized by an increase of viscosity of the medium when the pH of the medium was brought down, approaching the isoelectric point of pea protein. This profile was probably related to solubility of pea protein, as confirmed by direct solubility measurements (data not shown) and particle-size measurements in pea-protein solutions at various pH levels. Observed pea-protein particle sizes ranged between 1.7 and 267 µm (median: 80 µm), which is considerably smaller than the 2-mm (i.e. 2,000 µm) threshold for prolonged gastric retention seen with slowly digestible proteins like casein.

Bottom Line: Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro.Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals.These results indicate that 1) pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2) pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health, NIZO Food Research, Ede, The Netherlands; info@nizo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Pea protein (from Pisum sativum) is under consideration as a sustainable, satiety-inducing food ingredient.

Objective: In the current study, pea-protein-induced physiological signals relevant to satiety were characterized in vitro via gastric digestion kinetics and in vivo by monitoring post-meal gastrointestinal hormonal responses in rats.

Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS(®) pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY]) responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal) meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS(®) pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein).

Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals.

Conclusions: These results indicate that 1) pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2) pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus