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Standardised mindfulness-based interventions in healthcare: an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs.

Gotink RA, Chu P, Busschbach JJ, Benson H, Fricchione GL, Hunink MG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness MBSR and MBCT in different patient categories.Compared to wait list control and compared to treatment as usual, MBSR and MBCT significantly improved depressive symptoms (d=0.37; 95%CI 0.28 to 0.45, based on 5 reviews, N=2814), anxiety (d=0.49; 95%CI 0.37 to 0.61, based on 4 reviews, N=2525), stress (d=0.51; 95%CI 0.36 to 0.67, based on 2 reviews, N=1570), quality of life (d=0.39; 95%CI 0.08 to 0.70, based on 2 reviews, N=511) and physical functioning (d=0.27; 95%CI 0.12 to 0.42, based on 3 reviews, N=1015).The evidence supports the use of MBSR and MBCT to alleviate symptoms, both mental and physical, in the adjunct treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, depression, anxiety disorders and in prevention in healthy adults and children.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, section Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Background: Mindfulness-based therapies are being used in a wide range of common chronic conditions in both treatment and prevention despite lack of consensus about their effectiveness in different patient categories.

Objective: To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness MBSR and MBCT in different patient categories.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, using the standardized MBSR or MBCT programs. We used PRISMA guidelines to assess the quality of the included reviews and performed a random effects meta-analysis with main outcome measure Cohen's d. All types of participants were considered.

Results: The search produced 187 reviews: 23 were included, covering 115 unique RCTs and 8,683 unique individuals with various conditions. Compared to wait list control and compared to treatment as usual, MBSR and MBCT significantly improved depressive symptoms (d=0.37; 95%CI 0.28 to 0.45, based on 5 reviews, N=2814), anxiety (d=0.49; 95%CI 0.37 to 0.61, based on 4 reviews, N=2525), stress (d=0.51; 95%CI 0.36 to 0.67, based on 2 reviews, N=1570), quality of life (d=0.39; 95%CI 0.08 to 0.70, based on 2 reviews, N=511) and physical functioning (d=0.27; 95%CI 0.12 to 0.42, based on 3 reviews, N=1015). Limitations include heterogeneity within patient categories, risk of publication bias and limited long-term follow-up in several studies.

Conclusion: The evidence supports the use of MBSR and MBCT to alleviate symptoms, both mental and physical, in the adjunct treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, depression, anxiety disorders and in prevention in healthy adults and children.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Forest plots showing the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions compared with wait list control or treatment as usual on the outcomes a) Depression, b) Anxiety, c) Stress, d) Quality of life and e) Physical functioning in different populations.The size of the marker per review indicates the size of the study population. The breadth of the line indicates the 95%CI. All values lower than 0 indicate a significant difference in favour of MBSR/MBCT. Values between 0 and -0.2 indicate negligible effect; between -0.2 and -0.5 small effect; between -0.5 and -0.8 medium effect and lower than -0.8 a large effect.
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pone.0124344.g001: Forest plots showing the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions compared with wait list control or treatment as usual on the outcomes a) Depression, b) Anxiety, c) Stress, d) Quality of life and e) Physical functioning in different populations.The size of the marker per review indicates the size of the study population. The breadth of the line indicates the 95%CI. All values lower than 0 indicate a significant difference in favour of MBSR/MBCT. Values between 0 and -0.2 indicate negligible effect; between -0.2 and -0.5 small effect; between -0.5 and -0.8 medium effect and lower than -0.8 a large effect.

Mentions: Also, 8 reviews were included in the meta-analysis based on reported intergroup smd’s of MBCT/MBSR and the pooled effect per outcome. Reviews that did not conduct a meta-analysis reporting in smd were excluded from our meta-analysis due to heterogeneity of effect size, but were only reviewed. The forest plots (Fig 1) demonstrate significant differences in favour of MBCT/MBSR. Three reviews that reported smd’s on our outcome measures were omitted from the meta-analyses which ensured that the number of double counted RCTs remained under 10% [14–16]. The meta-analysis on reviews with outcome depression had 3% double counting (1 out of 34 RCTs), anxiety 8.6% (3 out of 35 RCTs), both stress and quality of life had 0% double counting and physical functioning had 6% (1 out of 17 RCTs). An overview of the RCTs in each meta-analysis outcome and a more elaborate description of the results can be found in the online supplementary material (S3 Table).


Standardised mindfulness-based interventions in healthcare: an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs.

Gotink RA, Chu P, Busschbach JJ, Benson H, Fricchione GL, Hunink MG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Forest plots showing the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions compared with wait list control or treatment as usual on the outcomes a) Depression, b) Anxiety, c) Stress, d) Quality of life and e) Physical functioning in different populations.The size of the marker per review indicates the size of the study population. The breadth of the line indicates the 95%CI. All values lower than 0 indicate a significant difference in favour of MBSR/MBCT. Values between 0 and -0.2 indicate negligible effect; between -0.2 and -0.5 small effect; between -0.5 and -0.8 medium effect and lower than -0.8 a large effect.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400080&req=5

pone.0124344.g001: Forest plots showing the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions compared with wait list control or treatment as usual on the outcomes a) Depression, b) Anxiety, c) Stress, d) Quality of life and e) Physical functioning in different populations.The size of the marker per review indicates the size of the study population. The breadth of the line indicates the 95%CI. All values lower than 0 indicate a significant difference in favour of MBSR/MBCT. Values between 0 and -0.2 indicate negligible effect; between -0.2 and -0.5 small effect; between -0.5 and -0.8 medium effect and lower than -0.8 a large effect.
Mentions: Also, 8 reviews were included in the meta-analysis based on reported intergroup smd’s of MBCT/MBSR and the pooled effect per outcome. Reviews that did not conduct a meta-analysis reporting in smd were excluded from our meta-analysis due to heterogeneity of effect size, but were only reviewed. The forest plots (Fig 1) demonstrate significant differences in favour of MBCT/MBSR. Three reviews that reported smd’s on our outcome measures were omitted from the meta-analyses which ensured that the number of double counted RCTs remained under 10% [14–16]. The meta-analysis on reviews with outcome depression had 3% double counting (1 out of 34 RCTs), anxiety 8.6% (3 out of 35 RCTs), both stress and quality of life had 0% double counting and physical functioning had 6% (1 out of 17 RCTs). An overview of the RCTs in each meta-analysis outcome and a more elaborate description of the results can be found in the online supplementary material (S3 Table).

Bottom Line: To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness MBSR and MBCT in different patient categories.Compared to wait list control and compared to treatment as usual, MBSR and MBCT significantly improved depressive symptoms (d=0.37; 95%CI 0.28 to 0.45, based on 5 reviews, N=2814), anxiety (d=0.49; 95%CI 0.37 to 0.61, based on 4 reviews, N=2525), stress (d=0.51; 95%CI 0.36 to 0.67, based on 2 reviews, N=1570), quality of life (d=0.39; 95%CI 0.08 to 0.70, based on 2 reviews, N=511) and physical functioning (d=0.27; 95%CI 0.12 to 0.42, based on 3 reviews, N=1015).The evidence supports the use of MBSR and MBCT to alleviate symptoms, both mental and physical, in the adjunct treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, depression, anxiety disorders and in prevention in healthy adults and children.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, section Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Background: Mindfulness-based therapies are being used in a wide range of common chronic conditions in both treatment and prevention despite lack of consensus about their effectiveness in different patient categories.

Objective: To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness MBSR and MBCT in different patient categories.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, using the standardized MBSR or MBCT programs. We used PRISMA guidelines to assess the quality of the included reviews and performed a random effects meta-analysis with main outcome measure Cohen's d. All types of participants were considered.

Results: The search produced 187 reviews: 23 were included, covering 115 unique RCTs and 8,683 unique individuals with various conditions. Compared to wait list control and compared to treatment as usual, MBSR and MBCT significantly improved depressive symptoms (d=0.37; 95%CI 0.28 to 0.45, based on 5 reviews, N=2814), anxiety (d=0.49; 95%CI 0.37 to 0.61, based on 4 reviews, N=2525), stress (d=0.51; 95%CI 0.36 to 0.67, based on 2 reviews, N=1570), quality of life (d=0.39; 95%CI 0.08 to 0.70, based on 2 reviews, N=511) and physical functioning (d=0.27; 95%CI 0.12 to 0.42, based on 3 reviews, N=1015). Limitations include heterogeneity within patient categories, risk of publication bias and limited long-term follow-up in several studies.

Conclusion: The evidence supports the use of MBSR and MBCT to alleviate symptoms, both mental and physical, in the adjunct treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, depression, anxiety disorders and in prevention in healthy adults and children.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus