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Phonological codes constrain output of orthographic codes via sublexical and lexical routes in Chinese written production.

Wang C, Zhang Q - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: A facilitatory effect of word frequency was found in both experiments, in which words with high frequency were produced faster than those with low frequency.More importantly, we observed an inhibitory phonetic regularity effect, in which low-frequency picture names with regular first characters were slower to write than those with irregular ones, and an inhibitory homophone density effect, in which characters with dense homophone density were produced more slowly than those with sparse homophone density.Results suggested that phonological codes constrained handwritten production via lexical and sublexical routes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
To what extent do phonological codes constrain orthographic output in handwritten production? We investigated how phonological codes constrain the selection of orthographic codes via sublexical and lexical routes in Chinese written production. Participants wrote down picture names in a picture-naming task in Experiment 1or response words in a symbol-word associative writing task in Experiment 2. A sublexical phonological property of picture names (phonetic regularity: regular vs. irregular) in Experiment 1and a lexical phonological property of response words (homophone density: dense vs. sparse) in Experiment 2, as well as word frequency of the targets in both experiments, were manipulated. A facilitatory effect of word frequency was found in both experiments, in which words with high frequency were produced faster than those with low frequency. More importantly, we observed an inhibitory phonetic regularity effect, in which low-frequency picture names with regular first characters were slower to write than those with irregular ones, and an inhibitory homophone density effect, in which characters with dense homophone density were produced more slowly than those with sparse homophone density. Results suggested that phonological codes constrained handwritten production via lexical and sublexical routes.

No MeSH data available.


A sketch model of written production
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pone.0124470.g001: A sketch model of written production

Mentions: Bonin et al. [14] proposed a written production model (see Fig 1), which assumes a semantic system that is symmetrically linked to both phonological and orthographic output lexicons. This model assumes two routes from phonological lexicon to grapheme output in written production. According to the lexical route, phonological and orthographic lexicons directly map onto each other (route A in Fig 1), implying that the selection of graphemic entry is influenced by both direct activation from the semantic system and indirect activation from the phonological lexicon. The sublexical route assumes graphemes are incrementally assembled from phonology via a phoneme-to-grapheme conversion (route B in Fig 1), through which paralleling the sublexical grapheme-to-phoneme conversion route in the dual-route models of reading aloud [24]. Bonin et al. [14] manipulated the consistency of phonology-to-orthography mappings in picture names to identify the potential effects of phonological codes in written picture naming. They found that word-initial inconsistencies at the sublexical level affect writing latencies: Picture names with inconsistent phonology to orthography mapping (e.g., knife) were written more slowly than those with consistent ones (e.g., nose). Whereas no difference was found when consistency was manipulated at the lexical level (whether picture names had heterographic homophones). In addition to supporting the involvement of phonology in written production, results suggested that phonology affected orthographic encoding mainly via the sublexical route.


Phonological codes constrain output of orthographic codes via sublexical and lexical routes in Chinese written production.

Wang C, Zhang Q - PLoS ONE (2015)

A sketch model of written production
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400079&req=5

pone.0124470.g001: A sketch model of written production
Mentions: Bonin et al. [14] proposed a written production model (see Fig 1), which assumes a semantic system that is symmetrically linked to both phonological and orthographic output lexicons. This model assumes two routes from phonological lexicon to grapheme output in written production. According to the lexical route, phonological and orthographic lexicons directly map onto each other (route A in Fig 1), implying that the selection of graphemic entry is influenced by both direct activation from the semantic system and indirect activation from the phonological lexicon. The sublexical route assumes graphemes are incrementally assembled from phonology via a phoneme-to-grapheme conversion (route B in Fig 1), through which paralleling the sublexical grapheme-to-phoneme conversion route in the dual-route models of reading aloud [24]. Bonin et al. [14] manipulated the consistency of phonology-to-orthography mappings in picture names to identify the potential effects of phonological codes in written picture naming. They found that word-initial inconsistencies at the sublexical level affect writing latencies: Picture names with inconsistent phonology to orthography mapping (e.g., knife) were written more slowly than those with consistent ones (e.g., nose). Whereas no difference was found when consistency was manipulated at the lexical level (whether picture names had heterographic homophones). In addition to supporting the involvement of phonology in written production, results suggested that phonology affected orthographic encoding mainly via the sublexical route.

Bottom Line: A facilitatory effect of word frequency was found in both experiments, in which words with high frequency were produced faster than those with low frequency.More importantly, we observed an inhibitory phonetic regularity effect, in which low-frequency picture names with regular first characters were slower to write than those with irregular ones, and an inhibitory homophone density effect, in which characters with dense homophone density were produced more slowly than those with sparse homophone density.Results suggested that phonological codes constrained handwritten production via lexical and sublexical routes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
To what extent do phonological codes constrain orthographic output in handwritten production? We investigated how phonological codes constrain the selection of orthographic codes via sublexical and lexical routes in Chinese written production. Participants wrote down picture names in a picture-naming task in Experiment 1or response words in a symbol-word associative writing task in Experiment 2. A sublexical phonological property of picture names (phonetic regularity: regular vs. irregular) in Experiment 1and a lexical phonological property of response words (homophone density: dense vs. sparse) in Experiment 2, as well as word frequency of the targets in both experiments, were manipulated. A facilitatory effect of word frequency was found in both experiments, in which words with high frequency were produced faster than those with low frequency. More importantly, we observed an inhibitory phonetic regularity effect, in which low-frequency picture names with regular first characters were slower to write than those with irregular ones, and an inhibitory homophone density effect, in which characters with dense homophone density were produced more slowly than those with sparse homophone density. Results suggested that phonological codes constrained handwritten production via lexical and sublexical routes.

No MeSH data available.