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Age at which larvae are orphaned determines their development into typical or rebel workers in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.).

Kuszewska K, Woyciechowski M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: These rebel workers are more queenlike and have greater reproductive potential than normal workers.However, it was unclear whether larvae orphaned at any time during their feeding period can develop into rebels.Our results showed that larvae orphaned during the final four or more days of their feeding life develop into rebel workers with more ovarioles in their ovaries, smaller hypopharyngeal glands, and larger mandibular and Dufour's glands compared with typical workers with low reproductive potential that were reared with a queen or orphaned at the third to last or a later day of feeding life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

ABSTRACT
In the honeybee, diploid larvae fed with royal jelly develop into reproductive queens, whereas larvae fed with royal jelly for three days only and subsequently with honey and pollen develop into facultatively sterile workers. A recent study showed that worker larvae fed in a queenless colony develop into another female polyphenic form: rebel workers. These rebel workers are more queenlike and have greater reproductive potential than normal workers. However, it was unclear whether larvae orphaned at any time during their feeding period can develop into rebels. To answer this question, the anatomical features of newly emerged workers reared in queenless conditions at different ages during the larval period were evaluated. Our results showed that larvae orphaned during the final four or more days of their feeding life develop into rebel workers with more ovarioles in their ovaries, smaller hypopharyngeal glands, and larger mandibular and Dufour's glands compared with typical workers with low reproductive potential that were reared with a queen or orphaned at the third to last or a later day of feeding life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean (± SD) anatomical parameters for bees reared as larvae under seven different conditions.Body mass (a) number of ovarioles (b) size of hypopharyngeal glands (c) size of mandibular glands (d) and size of Dufour’s gland (e) of newly emerged honeybee workers reared as larvae in the queenless condition for 0 to 6 days (see Methods; each bar represents pooled data from five colonies; groups that differ significantly from one another are indicated with different letters).
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pone.0123404.g002: Mean (± SD) anatomical parameters for bees reared as larvae under seven different conditions.Body mass (a) number of ovarioles (b) size of hypopharyngeal glands (c) size of mandibular glands (d) and size of Dufour’s gland (e) of newly emerged honeybee workers reared as larvae in the queenless condition for 0 to 6 days (see Methods; each bar represents pooled data from five colonies; groups that differ significantly from one another are indicated with different letters).

Mentions: Our results show that newly emerged workers reared as larvae without the queen at different stages of development did not differ with respect to body mass (Fig 2A and Table 1). However, there were significant differences in ovariole numbers and the size of hypopharyngeal, mandibular and Dufour’s glands between workers from different experimental rearing groups (Table 1 and Fig 2 B–2 E). The post hoc Tukey HSD test showed that workers reared in the queenright condition (group 0) and those reared in the queenless condition for the last 1, 2 or 3 days of the larval feeding period (groups 1–3) exhibited fewer ovarioles, larger hypopharyngeal glands and smaller mandibular and Dufour’s glands than the workers reared in queenless conditions for the last 4, 5 or 6 days of the larval period (groups 4–6; Fig 2; P < 0.001). There were also differences in some parameters (the number of ovarioles and the size of hypopharyngeal and Dufour’s glands) between the workers from groups 4–6 (details in Fig 2 B–2 E; P < 0.001).


Age at which larvae are orphaned determines their development into typical or rebel workers in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.).

Kuszewska K, Woyciechowski M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mean (± SD) anatomical parameters for bees reared as larvae under seven different conditions.Body mass (a) number of ovarioles (b) size of hypopharyngeal glands (c) size of mandibular glands (d) and size of Dufour’s gland (e) of newly emerged honeybee workers reared as larvae in the queenless condition for 0 to 6 days (see Methods; each bar represents pooled data from five colonies; groups that differ significantly from one another are indicated with different letters).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400021&req=5

pone.0123404.g002: Mean (± SD) anatomical parameters for bees reared as larvae under seven different conditions.Body mass (a) number of ovarioles (b) size of hypopharyngeal glands (c) size of mandibular glands (d) and size of Dufour’s gland (e) of newly emerged honeybee workers reared as larvae in the queenless condition for 0 to 6 days (see Methods; each bar represents pooled data from five colonies; groups that differ significantly from one another are indicated with different letters).
Mentions: Our results show that newly emerged workers reared as larvae without the queen at different stages of development did not differ with respect to body mass (Fig 2A and Table 1). However, there were significant differences in ovariole numbers and the size of hypopharyngeal, mandibular and Dufour’s glands between workers from different experimental rearing groups (Table 1 and Fig 2 B–2 E). The post hoc Tukey HSD test showed that workers reared in the queenright condition (group 0) and those reared in the queenless condition for the last 1, 2 or 3 days of the larval feeding period (groups 1–3) exhibited fewer ovarioles, larger hypopharyngeal glands and smaller mandibular and Dufour’s glands than the workers reared in queenless conditions for the last 4, 5 or 6 days of the larval period (groups 4–6; Fig 2; P < 0.001). There were also differences in some parameters (the number of ovarioles and the size of hypopharyngeal and Dufour’s glands) between the workers from groups 4–6 (details in Fig 2 B–2 E; P < 0.001).

Bottom Line: These rebel workers are more queenlike and have greater reproductive potential than normal workers.However, it was unclear whether larvae orphaned at any time during their feeding period can develop into rebels.Our results showed that larvae orphaned during the final four or more days of their feeding life develop into rebel workers with more ovarioles in their ovaries, smaller hypopharyngeal glands, and larger mandibular and Dufour's glands compared with typical workers with low reproductive potential that were reared with a queen or orphaned at the third to last or a later day of feeding life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

ABSTRACT
In the honeybee, diploid larvae fed with royal jelly develop into reproductive queens, whereas larvae fed with royal jelly for three days only and subsequently with honey and pollen develop into facultatively sterile workers. A recent study showed that worker larvae fed in a queenless colony develop into another female polyphenic form: rebel workers. These rebel workers are more queenlike and have greater reproductive potential than normal workers. However, it was unclear whether larvae orphaned at any time during their feeding period can develop into rebels. To answer this question, the anatomical features of newly emerged workers reared in queenless conditions at different ages during the larval period were evaluated. Our results showed that larvae orphaned during the final four or more days of their feeding life develop into rebel workers with more ovarioles in their ovaries, smaller hypopharyngeal glands, and larger mandibular and Dufour's glands compared with typical workers with low reproductive potential that were reared with a queen or orphaned at the third to last or a later day of feeding life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus