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Intermittent high glucose implements stress-induced senescence in human vascular endothelial cells: role of superoxide production by NADPH oxidase.

Maeda M, Hayashi T, Mizuno N, Hattori Y, Kuzuya M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Impaired glucose tolerance characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which occurs frequently in elderly persons and represents an important preliminary step in diabetes mellitus, poses an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis.Interestingly, in intermittent high glucose, this effect was more pronounced as well as increase of p21 and p16INK4a , senescence related proteins with DNA damage.However, telomerase was not activated and telomere length was not shortened, thus stress-induced senescence was shown.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Impaired glucose tolerance characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which occurs frequently in elderly persons and represents an important preliminary step in diabetes mellitus, poses an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cellular senescence is reported to precede atherosclerosis. We reported that continuous high glucose stimulus causes endothelial senescence more markedly than hypertension or dyslipidemia stimulus. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of fluctuating glucose levels on human endothelial senescence. Constant high glucose increased senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, a widely used marker for cellular senescence. Interestingly, in intermittent high glucose, this effect was more pronounced as well as increase of p21 and p16INK4a , senescence related proteins with DNA damage. However, telomerase was not activated and telomere length was not shortened, thus stress-induced senescence was shown. However, constant high glucose activated telomerase and shortened telomere length, which suggested replicative senescence. Intermittent but not constant high glucose strikingly up-regulated the expression of p22phox, an NADPH oxidase component, increasing superoxide. The small interfering RNA of p22phox undermined the increase in SA-β-gal activity induced by intermittent high glucose. Conclusively, intermittent high glucose can promote vascular endothelial senescence more than constant high glucose, which is in partially dependent on superoxide overproduction.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of high glucose on SA-β-gal activity in HUVECs.NG, constant normal glucose (5 mM); HG, constant high glucose (22 mM); and N/HG, 5 mM alternating with 22 mM glucose. To confirm the effect of glucose in HUVECs, NG, HG and N/HG were cultured with each Stimulus for 3 days. HUVECs were cultured with constant high glucose (HG) and intermittent glucose (N/HG) introduced in Fig 1. Namely, N/HG was stimulated twice with HG (at 4-hour intervals) for a total of 4 hours daily (9 a.m. to 11 a.m., 3 p.m. to 5 p.m.), and was cultured in NG in other time of the total 4-hour HG stimulation. (A) SA-β-gal activity was evaluated cytochemically. The values of the three independent experiments are mean ± S.D. **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 vs. NG; ###p<0.001 vs. HG. (B) SA- β-gal-positive cells (blue) can be detected via cytochemical staining.
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pone.0123169.g002: Effect of high glucose on SA-β-gal activity in HUVECs.NG, constant normal glucose (5 mM); HG, constant high glucose (22 mM); and N/HG, 5 mM alternating with 22 mM glucose. To confirm the effect of glucose in HUVECs, NG, HG and N/HG were cultured with each Stimulus for 3 days. HUVECs were cultured with constant high glucose (HG) and intermittent glucose (N/HG) introduced in Fig 1. Namely, N/HG was stimulated twice with HG (at 4-hour intervals) for a total of 4 hours daily (9 a.m. to 11 a.m., 3 p.m. to 5 p.m.), and was cultured in NG in other time of the total 4-hour HG stimulation. (A) SA-β-gal activity was evaluated cytochemically. The values of the three independent experiments are mean ± S.D. **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 vs. NG; ###p<0.001 vs. HG. (B) SA- β-gal-positive cells (blue) can be detected via cytochemical staining.

Mentions: When HUVECs were exposed to constant high glucose, there was a significant increase in SA-β-gal activity, a widely used quantitative marker for aging in vitro. This effect was enhanced when the cells were exposed to intermittent high glucose concentrations (Fig 2A). Similarly, cytochemical staining SA-β-gal showed that the number of SA-β-gal positive cells showed that the number of SA-β-gal positive cells was induced by the high-glucose condition and was increased under the fluctuating-glucose condition (Fig 2B). SA-β-gal activity was not affected by osmolality, which was confirmed by the lack of effect of mannitol, as reported in our previous study [6].


Intermittent high glucose implements stress-induced senescence in human vascular endothelial cells: role of superoxide production by NADPH oxidase.

Maeda M, Hayashi T, Mizuno N, Hattori Y, Kuzuya M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of high glucose on SA-β-gal activity in HUVECs.NG, constant normal glucose (5 mM); HG, constant high glucose (22 mM); and N/HG, 5 mM alternating with 22 mM glucose. To confirm the effect of glucose in HUVECs, NG, HG and N/HG were cultured with each Stimulus for 3 days. HUVECs were cultured with constant high glucose (HG) and intermittent glucose (N/HG) introduced in Fig 1. Namely, N/HG was stimulated twice with HG (at 4-hour intervals) for a total of 4 hours daily (9 a.m. to 11 a.m., 3 p.m. to 5 p.m.), and was cultured in NG in other time of the total 4-hour HG stimulation. (A) SA-β-gal activity was evaluated cytochemically. The values of the three independent experiments are mean ± S.D. **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 vs. NG; ###p<0.001 vs. HG. (B) SA- β-gal-positive cells (blue) can be detected via cytochemical staining.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4400006&req=5

pone.0123169.g002: Effect of high glucose on SA-β-gal activity in HUVECs.NG, constant normal glucose (5 mM); HG, constant high glucose (22 mM); and N/HG, 5 mM alternating with 22 mM glucose. To confirm the effect of glucose in HUVECs, NG, HG and N/HG were cultured with each Stimulus for 3 days. HUVECs were cultured with constant high glucose (HG) and intermittent glucose (N/HG) introduced in Fig 1. Namely, N/HG was stimulated twice with HG (at 4-hour intervals) for a total of 4 hours daily (9 a.m. to 11 a.m., 3 p.m. to 5 p.m.), and was cultured in NG in other time of the total 4-hour HG stimulation. (A) SA-β-gal activity was evaluated cytochemically. The values of the three independent experiments are mean ± S.D. **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 vs. NG; ###p<0.001 vs. HG. (B) SA- β-gal-positive cells (blue) can be detected via cytochemical staining.
Mentions: When HUVECs were exposed to constant high glucose, there was a significant increase in SA-β-gal activity, a widely used quantitative marker for aging in vitro. This effect was enhanced when the cells were exposed to intermittent high glucose concentrations (Fig 2A). Similarly, cytochemical staining SA-β-gal showed that the number of SA-β-gal positive cells showed that the number of SA-β-gal positive cells was induced by the high-glucose condition and was increased under the fluctuating-glucose condition (Fig 2B). SA-β-gal activity was not affected by osmolality, which was confirmed by the lack of effect of mannitol, as reported in our previous study [6].

Bottom Line: Impaired glucose tolerance characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which occurs frequently in elderly persons and represents an important preliminary step in diabetes mellitus, poses an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis.Interestingly, in intermittent high glucose, this effect was more pronounced as well as increase of p21 and p16INK4a , senescence related proteins with DNA damage.However, telomerase was not activated and telomere length was not shortened, thus stress-induced senescence was shown.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Impaired glucose tolerance characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which occurs frequently in elderly persons and represents an important preliminary step in diabetes mellitus, poses an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cellular senescence is reported to precede atherosclerosis. We reported that continuous high glucose stimulus causes endothelial senescence more markedly than hypertension or dyslipidemia stimulus. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of fluctuating glucose levels on human endothelial senescence. Constant high glucose increased senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, a widely used marker for cellular senescence. Interestingly, in intermittent high glucose, this effect was more pronounced as well as increase of p21 and p16INK4a , senescence related proteins with DNA damage. However, telomerase was not activated and telomere length was not shortened, thus stress-induced senescence was shown. However, constant high glucose activated telomerase and shortened telomere length, which suggested replicative senescence. Intermittent but not constant high glucose strikingly up-regulated the expression of p22phox, an NADPH oxidase component, increasing superoxide. The small interfering RNA of p22phox undermined the increase in SA-β-gal activity induced by intermittent high glucose. Conclusively, intermittent high glucose can promote vascular endothelial senescence more than constant high glucose, which is in partially dependent on superoxide overproduction.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus