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Bifactor analysis and construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ) in non-clinical Spanish samples.

Aguado J, Luciano JV, Cebolla A, Serrano-Blanco A, Soler J, García-Campayo J - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: The SEM analysis revealed significant links between mindfulness and symptoms of depression and stress.When the general factor was partialled out, the acting with awareness facet did not show adequate reliability.Nevertheless, the Observing subscale does not seem to be adequate for assessing mindfulness in individuals without meditative experience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teaching, Research & Innovation Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The objective of the present study was to examine the dimensionality, reliability, and construct validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in three Spanish samples using structural equation modeling (SEM). Pooling the FFMQ data from 3 Spanish samples (n = 1191), we estimated the fit of two competing models (correlated five-factor vs. bifactor) via confirmatory factor analysis. The factorial invariance of the best fitting model across meditative practice was also addressed. The pattern of relationships between the FFMQ latent dimensions and anxiety, depression, and distress was analyzed using SEM. FFMQ reliability was examined by computing the omega and omega hierarchical coefficients. The bifactor model, which accounted for the covariance among FFMQ items with regard to one general factor (mindfulness) and five orthogonal factors (observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judgment, and non-reactivity), fit the FFMQ structure better than the correlated five-factor model. The relationships between the latent variables and their manifest indicators were not invariant across the meditative experience. Observing items had significant loadings on the general mindfulness factor, but only in the meditator sub-sample. The SEM analysis revealed significant links between mindfulness and symptoms of depression and stress. When the general factor was partialled out, the acting with awareness facet did not show adequate reliability. The FFMQ shows a robust bifactor structure among Spanish individuals. Nevertheless, the Observing subscale does not seem to be adequate for assessing mindfulness in individuals without meditative experience.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Model tested for the FFMQ: Bifactor model + uncorrelated negative and positive method factors. Individual items have been grouped for illustrative purposes. Analysis performed with individual items.
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Figure 2: Model tested for the FFMQ: Bifactor model + uncorrelated negative and positive method factors. Individual items have been grouped for illustrative purposes. Analysis performed with individual items.

Mentions: The factor structure of the FFMQ and the DASS-21 (the instrument used for the construct validity analysis) were evaluated with CFAs. Participants with missing values on all FFMQ and DASS-21 items were excluded from the analyses. For the FFMQ, two models were tested in the pooled sample1 (N = 1191; see Figures 1, 2): (a) a correlated 5-factor model with positive and negative method factors as proposed by Van Dam et al. (2012) and (b) a bifactor model positing that all items load on a general latent factor of mindfulness and on five specific uncorrelated cognitive facets. Positive and negative method factors were included in this model. In bifactor models, interpretations of facet scores for specific constructs should emphasize that these scores represent the joint functioning of both general (mindfulness) and specific (cognitive) factors. We considered items with moderate to high standardized facet loadings (values ≥ 0.30) to be strongly linked with its corresponding specified facet.


Bifactor analysis and construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ) in non-clinical Spanish samples.

Aguado J, Luciano JV, Cebolla A, Serrano-Blanco A, Soler J, García-Campayo J - Front Psychol (2015)

Model tested for the FFMQ: Bifactor model + uncorrelated negative and positive method factors. Individual items have been grouped for illustrative purposes. Analysis performed with individual items.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390906&req=5

Figure 2: Model tested for the FFMQ: Bifactor model + uncorrelated negative and positive method factors. Individual items have been grouped for illustrative purposes. Analysis performed with individual items.
Mentions: The factor structure of the FFMQ and the DASS-21 (the instrument used for the construct validity analysis) were evaluated with CFAs. Participants with missing values on all FFMQ and DASS-21 items were excluded from the analyses. For the FFMQ, two models were tested in the pooled sample1 (N = 1191; see Figures 1, 2): (a) a correlated 5-factor model with positive and negative method factors as proposed by Van Dam et al. (2012) and (b) a bifactor model positing that all items load on a general latent factor of mindfulness and on five specific uncorrelated cognitive facets. Positive and negative method factors were included in this model. In bifactor models, interpretations of facet scores for specific constructs should emphasize that these scores represent the joint functioning of both general (mindfulness) and specific (cognitive) factors. We considered items with moderate to high standardized facet loadings (values ≥ 0.30) to be strongly linked with its corresponding specified facet.

Bottom Line: The SEM analysis revealed significant links between mindfulness and symptoms of depression and stress.When the general factor was partialled out, the acting with awareness facet did not show adequate reliability.Nevertheless, the Observing subscale does not seem to be adequate for assessing mindfulness in individuals without meditative experience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teaching, Research & Innovation Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The objective of the present study was to examine the dimensionality, reliability, and construct validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in three Spanish samples using structural equation modeling (SEM). Pooling the FFMQ data from 3 Spanish samples (n = 1191), we estimated the fit of two competing models (correlated five-factor vs. bifactor) via confirmatory factor analysis. The factorial invariance of the best fitting model across meditative practice was also addressed. The pattern of relationships between the FFMQ latent dimensions and anxiety, depression, and distress was analyzed using SEM. FFMQ reliability was examined by computing the omega and omega hierarchical coefficients. The bifactor model, which accounted for the covariance among FFMQ items with regard to one general factor (mindfulness) and five orthogonal factors (observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judgment, and non-reactivity), fit the FFMQ structure better than the correlated five-factor model. The relationships between the latent variables and their manifest indicators were not invariant across the meditative experience. Observing items had significant loadings on the general mindfulness factor, but only in the meditator sub-sample. The SEM analysis revealed significant links between mindfulness and symptoms of depression and stress. When the general factor was partialled out, the acting with awareness facet did not show adequate reliability. The FFMQ shows a robust bifactor structure among Spanish individuals. Nevertheless, the Observing subscale does not seem to be adequate for assessing mindfulness in individuals without meditative experience.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus