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Cyanobacterial Oxygenic Photosynthesis is Protected by Flavodiiron Proteins.

Allahverdiyeva Y, Isojärvi J, Zhang P, Aro EM - Life (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs, also called flavoproteins, Flvs) are modular enzymes widely present in Bacteria and Archaea.Present cyanobacterial FDPs are composed of three domains, the β-lactamase-like, flavodoxin-like and flavin-reductase like domains.Whilst Flv2 and Flv4 proteins are limited to specific cyanobacterial species (β-cyanobacteria) and function in photoprotection of Photosystem II, Flv1 and Flv3 proteins, functioning in the "Mehler-like" reaction and safeguarding Photosystem I under fluctuating light conditions, occur in nearly all cyanobacteria and additionally in green algae, mosses and lycophytes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. allahve@utu.fi.

ABSTRACT
Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs, also called flavoproteins, Flvs) are modular enzymes widely present in Bacteria and Archaea. The evolution of cyanobacteria and oxygenic photosynthesis occurred in concert with the modulation of typical bacterial FDPs. Present cyanobacterial FDPs are composed of three domains, the β-lactamase-like, flavodoxin-like and flavin-reductase like domains. Cyanobacterial FDPs function as hetero- and homodimers and are involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Whilst Flv2 and Flv4 proteins are limited to specific cyanobacterial species (β-cyanobacteria) and function in photoprotection of Photosystem II, Flv1 and Flv3 proteins, functioning in the "Mehler-like" reaction and safeguarding Photosystem I under fluctuating light conditions, occur in nearly all cyanobacteria and additionally in green algae, mosses and lycophytes. Filamentous cyanobacteria have additional FDPs in heterocyst cells, ensuring a microaerobic environment for the function of the nitrogenase enzyme under the light. Here, the evolution, occurrence and functional mechanisms of various FDPs in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Relationship between cyanobacterial FDPs based on sequence similarity and physiological functions. Phylogenic analysis is based on FDPs in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. ROO (rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase) from Desulfovibrio gigas is used as an outgroup. The FDPs functioning in the photoprotection of Photosystem II are indicated in orange. The FDPs functioning in the Mehler-like reaction and protection of Photosystem I are indicated in green. The FDPs indicated in dark green function in vegetative cells, and those in light green function in heterocysts. *Flv3B can be arranged and function as a homodimer [18].
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life-05-00716-f002: Relationship between cyanobacterial FDPs based on sequence similarity and physiological functions. Phylogenic analysis is based on FDPs in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. ROO (rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase) from Desulfovibrio gigas is used as an outgroup. The FDPs functioning in the photoprotection of Photosystem II are indicated in orange. The FDPs functioning in the Mehler-like reaction and protection of Photosystem I are indicated in green. The FDPs indicated in dark green function in vegetative cells, and those in light green function in heterocysts. *Flv3B can be arranged and function as a homodimer [18].

Mentions: Genes encoding FDPs (flv) can be found in most sequenced cyanobacteria, including the obligatory photoautotrophic species. Different cyanobacterial strains may possess several copies (2–6) of flv genes, thus comprising a small family encoding different FDPs. We have earlier shown that FDPs in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms can be grouped into almost symmetrical clusters (cluster A, including Flv1 and Flv2, and cluster B, including Flv3 and Flv4) and appear in pair(s) (flv1-flv3 or flv2-flv4) [2]. The distribution of the clusters is depicted in Figure 2 and the number of flv genes and their organization in the genomes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are summarized in Table 1. Cyanobacteria can be divided into two groups depending on RubBisCO and carboxysome types: α- and β-cyanobacteria [15,16,17]. The α-cyanobacteria have only one pair of flv genes (flv1-flv3). Some unicellular and filamentous, non-heterocystous β-cyanobacteria, including the model unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, possess the flv2-flv4 pair in addition to flv1-flv3. All heterocystous filamentous β-cyanobacteria contain two pairs of flv1-flv3, designated as flv1a-flv3a and flv1b-flv3b, thus having 4 or 6 flv genes depending on the presence of the flv2-flv4 pair. It seems that the flv1-flv3 pair is largely present in all organisms containing C Class FDPs, whereas the flv2-flv4 pair is present only in some β-cyanobacteria.


Cyanobacterial Oxygenic Photosynthesis is Protected by Flavodiiron Proteins.

Allahverdiyeva Y, Isojärvi J, Zhang P, Aro EM - Life (Basel) (2015)

Relationship between cyanobacterial FDPs based on sequence similarity and physiological functions. Phylogenic analysis is based on FDPs in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. ROO (rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase) from Desulfovibrio gigas is used as an outgroup. The FDPs functioning in the photoprotection of Photosystem II are indicated in orange. The FDPs functioning in the Mehler-like reaction and protection of Photosystem I are indicated in green. The FDPs indicated in dark green function in vegetative cells, and those in light green function in heterocysts. *Flv3B can be arranged and function as a homodimer [18].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390876&req=5

life-05-00716-f002: Relationship between cyanobacterial FDPs based on sequence similarity and physiological functions. Phylogenic analysis is based on FDPs in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. ROO (rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase) from Desulfovibrio gigas is used as an outgroup. The FDPs functioning in the photoprotection of Photosystem II are indicated in orange. The FDPs functioning in the Mehler-like reaction and protection of Photosystem I are indicated in green. The FDPs indicated in dark green function in vegetative cells, and those in light green function in heterocysts. *Flv3B can be arranged and function as a homodimer [18].
Mentions: Genes encoding FDPs (flv) can be found in most sequenced cyanobacteria, including the obligatory photoautotrophic species. Different cyanobacterial strains may possess several copies (2–6) of flv genes, thus comprising a small family encoding different FDPs. We have earlier shown that FDPs in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms can be grouped into almost symmetrical clusters (cluster A, including Flv1 and Flv2, and cluster B, including Flv3 and Flv4) and appear in pair(s) (flv1-flv3 or flv2-flv4) [2]. The distribution of the clusters is depicted in Figure 2 and the number of flv genes and their organization in the genomes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are summarized in Table 1. Cyanobacteria can be divided into two groups depending on RubBisCO and carboxysome types: α- and β-cyanobacteria [15,16,17]. The α-cyanobacteria have only one pair of flv genes (flv1-flv3). Some unicellular and filamentous, non-heterocystous β-cyanobacteria, including the model unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, possess the flv2-flv4 pair in addition to flv1-flv3. All heterocystous filamentous β-cyanobacteria contain two pairs of flv1-flv3, designated as flv1a-flv3a and flv1b-flv3b, thus having 4 or 6 flv genes depending on the presence of the flv2-flv4 pair. It seems that the flv1-flv3 pair is largely present in all organisms containing C Class FDPs, whereas the flv2-flv4 pair is present only in some β-cyanobacteria.

Bottom Line: Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs, also called flavoproteins, Flvs) are modular enzymes widely present in Bacteria and Archaea.Present cyanobacterial FDPs are composed of three domains, the β-lactamase-like, flavodoxin-like and flavin-reductase like domains.Whilst Flv2 and Flv4 proteins are limited to specific cyanobacterial species (β-cyanobacteria) and function in photoprotection of Photosystem II, Flv1 and Flv3 proteins, functioning in the "Mehler-like" reaction and safeguarding Photosystem I under fluctuating light conditions, occur in nearly all cyanobacteria and additionally in green algae, mosses and lycophytes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. allahve@utu.fi.

ABSTRACT
Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs, also called flavoproteins, Flvs) are modular enzymes widely present in Bacteria and Archaea. The evolution of cyanobacteria and oxygenic photosynthesis occurred in concert with the modulation of typical bacterial FDPs. Present cyanobacterial FDPs are composed of three domains, the β-lactamase-like, flavodoxin-like and flavin-reductase like domains. Cyanobacterial FDPs function as hetero- and homodimers and are involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Whilst Flv2 and Flv4 proteins are limited to specific cyanobacterial species (β-cyanobacteria) and function in photoprotection of Photosystem II, Flv1 and Flv3 proteins, functioning in the "Mehler-like" reaction and safeguarding Photosystem I under fluctuating light conditions, occur in nearly all cyanobacteria and additionally in green algae, mosses and lycophytes. Filamentous cyanobacteria have additional FDPs in heterocyst cells, ensuring a microaerobic environment for the function of the nitrogenase enzyme under the light. Here, the evolution, occurrence and functional mechanisms of various FDPs in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are discussed.

No MeSH data available.