Limits...
From vesicles to protocells: the roles of amphiphilic molecules.

Sakuma Y, Imai M - Life (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies.Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation.This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. sakuma@bio.phys.tohoku.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Diffraction pattern of a rhombohedral structure (space group ); (b) the constructed electron density map shows a stalk structure (taken from [57]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390873&req=5

life-05-00651-f011: (a) Diffraction pattern of a rhombohedral structure (space group ); (b) the constructed electron density map shows a stalk structure (taken from [57]).

Mentions: A geometrical consideration suggests that the inverse-cone-shaped lipids tend to promote the formation of the stalk. The formation of the stalk by the inverse-cone-shaped lipids was demonstrated using an X-ray diffraction technique [57]. The inverse-cone-shaped lipids (1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPhPC) form the stacked bilayer, called the lamellar phase, when the inter-membrane distance on a clean and flat substrate is sufficient. For decreases in the inter-membrane distance, a scattering pattern having a rhombohedral space group was observed, as shown in Figure 11a. The three-dimensional electron density map constructed from the diffraction pattern (Figure 11b) shows that the two apposed monolayers merged and bent into an hourglass shape, which is exactly what has been modeled as the stalk.


From vesicles to protocells: the roles of amphiphilic molecules.

Sakuma Y, Imai M - Life (Basel) (2015)

(a) Diffraction pattern of a rhombohedral structure (space group ); (b) the constructed electron density map shows a stalk structure (taken from [57]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390873&req=5

life-05-00651-f011: (a) Diffraction pattern of a rhombohedral structure (space group ); (b) the constructed electron density map shows a stalk structure (taken from [57]).
Mentions: A geometrical consideration suggests that the inverse-cone-shaped lipids tend to promote the formation of the stalk. The formation of the stalk by the inverse-cone-shaped lipids was demonstrated using an X-ray diffraction technique [57]. The inverse-cone-shaped lipids (1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPhPC) form the stacked bilayer, called the lamellar phase, when the inter-membrane distance on a clean and flat substrate is sufficient. For decreases in the inter-membrane distance, a scattering pattern having a rhombohedral space group was observed, as shown in Figure 11a. The three-dimensional electron density map constructed from the diffraction pattern (Figure 11b) shows that the two apposed monolayers merged and bent into an hourglass shape, which is exactly what has been modeled as the stalk.

Bottom Line: It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies.Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation.This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. sakuma@bio.phys.tohoku.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus