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From vesicles to protocells: the roles of amphiphilic molecules.

Sakuma Y, Imai M - Life (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies.Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation.This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. sakuma@bio.phys.tohoku.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Schematic representation of the self-reproduction of giant multilamellar vesicles (GMVs). The membrane molecule, V, and electrolyte, E, are formed by the hydrolysis of the membrane precursor, V*, in the presence of the catalyst, C, and the fluorescence probe, Cf, which are anchored within the vesicular membrane (panel at the bottom right) (taken from [37]). Cat.: Catalysts. (B) Morphological changes in a GMV composed of V and 10 mol% C: (a–g) images obtained 0, 1.5, 3.5, 4, 5, 10 and 50 min, respectively, after the mixing of a dispersion of GMV and a solution of precursor V* (taken from [36]).
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life-05-00651-f006: (A) Schematic representation of the self-reproduction of giant multilamellar vesicles (GMVs). The membrane molecule, V, and electrolyte, E, are formed by the hydrolysis of the membrane precursor, V*, in the presence of the catalyst, C, and the fluorescence probe, Cf, which are anchored within the vesicular membrane (panel at the bottom right) (taken from [37]). Cat.: Catalysts. (B) Morphological changes in a GMV composed of V and 10 mol% C: (a–g) images obtained 0, 1.5, 3.5, 4, 5, 10 and 50 min, respectively, after the mixing of a dispersion of GMV and a solution of precursor V* (taken from [36]).

Mentions: In a different manner, a self-reproducing vesicle system was developed by designing new amphiphilic molecules [36,37]. The designed precursor of the membrane molecule (V*) is a bolaamphiphile (a polar head group is connected at one end of a tail by imide bonding) and is thus easily hydrolyzed to a membrane molecule (V) and electrolyte (E) through the aid of the catalyst, C, as shown in Figure 6A. When the precursor V* is added to a suspension of vesicles composed of the membrane molecule, V, and catalyst, C, V* is hydrolyzed in the vesicular membrane. The mother vesicle undergoes division using the generated membrane molecule, V, as shown in Figure 6B. These novel observations suggest the potential of membrane molecules to cause the self-reproduction of vesicles, although the physical basis is not clear. It is worthwhile to note that Sugawara’s group developed an advanced model protocell where the self-reproducing vesicle system is coupled with the amplification of DNA [38]. The interplay between DNA and the vesicular membrane accelerated the division of the vesicles.


From vesicles to protocells: the roles of amphiphilic molecules.

Sakuma Y, Imai M - Life (Basel) (2015)

(A) Schematic representation of the self-reproduction of giant multilamellar vesicles (GMVs). The membrane molecule, V, and electrolyte, E, are formed by the hydrolysis of the membrane precursor, V*, in the presence of the catalyst, C, and the fluorescence probe, Cf, which are anchored within the vesicular membrane (panel at the bottom right) (taken from [37]). Cat.: Catalysts. (B) Morphological changes in a GMV composed of V and 10 mol% C: (a–g) images obtained 0, 1.5, 3.5, 4, 5, 10 and 50 min, respectively, after the mixing of a dispersion of GMV and a solution of precursor V* (taken from [36]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390873&req=5

life-05-00651-f006: (A) Schematic representation of the self-reproduction of giant multilamellar vesicles (GMVs). The membrane molecule, V, and electrolyte, E, are formed by the hydrolysis of the membrane precursor, V*, in the presence of the catalyst, C, and the fluorescence probe, Cf, which are anchored within the vesicular membrane (panel at the bottom right) (taken from [37]). Cat.: Catalysts. (B) Morphological changes in a GMV composed of V and 10 mol% C: (a–g) images obtained 0, 1.5, 3.5, 4, 5, 10 and 50 min, respectively, after the mixing of a dispersion of GMV and a solution of precursor V* (taken from [36]).
Mentions: In a different manner, a self-reproducing vesicle system was developed by designing new amphiphilic molecules [36,37]. The designed precursor of the membrane molecule (V*) is a bolaamphiphile (a polar head group is connected at one end of a tail by imide bonding) and is thus easily hydrolyzed to a membrane molecule (V) and electrolyte (E) through the aid of the catalyst, C, as shown in Figure 6A. When the precursor V* is added to a suspension of vesicles composed of the membrane molecule, V, and catalyst, C, V* is hydrolyzed in the vesicular membrane. The mother vesicle undergoes division using the generated membrane molecule, V, as shown in Figure 6B. These novel observations suggest the potential of membrane molecules to cause the self-reproduction of vesicles, although the physical basis is not clear. It is worthwhile to note that Sugawara’s group developed an advanced model protocell where the self-reproducing vesicle system is coupled with the amplification of DNA [38]. The interplay between DNA and the vesicular membrane accelerated the division of the vesicles.

Bottom Line: It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies.Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation.This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. sakuma@bio.phys.tohoku.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus