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From vesicles to protocells: the roles of amphiphilic molecules.

Sakuma Y, Imai M - Life (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies.Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions.Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. sakuma@bio.phys.tohoku.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Two self-reproduction processes observed in oleic acid/oleate giant vesicles following oleic anhydride hydrolysis: “budding” and “birthing” (taken from [32]).
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life-05-00651-f004: Two self-reproduction processes observed in oleic acid/oleate giant vesicles following oleic anhydride hydrolysis: “budding” and “birthing” (taken from [32]).

Mentions: A step from vesicle toward protocell might be to develop self-reproducing vesicles coupled with the metabolic system. This approach was summarized in review articles [1,2,26,27,28,29,30]. In pioneering works, self-reproduction of vesicles was reported for an oleic acid/oleate giant vesicle system [31,32]. In the case of fatty acid vesicles, the morphology of the self-assembly is governed by the association of the carboxyl group, and vesicle formation is observed in the restricted pH region, where approximately half of the carboxyl groups are ionized [26,33]. Upon the addition of a droplet of oleic anhydride to an oleic acid/oleate giant vesicle suspension, the anhydride molecules are hydrolyzed to oleic acid/oleate within the bilayer of the vesicle. The vesicles supplemented with the oleic acid/oleate molecules display two self-reproduction processes: a budding pathway, where the mother vesicle deforms to a pear-like shape and then divides into two vesicles, and a birthing pathway, where the mother vesicle forms an inclusion vesicle that is then expelled from the mother vesicle, as shown in Figure 4.


From vesicles to protocells: the roles of amphiphilic molecules.

Sakuma Y, Imai M - Life (Basel) (2015)

Two self-reproduction processes observed in oleic acid/oleate giant vesicles following oleic anhydride hydrolysis: “budding” and “birthing” (taken from [32]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390873&req=5

life-05-00651-f004: Two self-reproduction processes observed in oleic acid/oleate giant vesicles following oleic anhydride hydrolysis: “budding” and “birthing” (taken from [32]).
Mentions: A step from vesicle toward protocell might be to develop self-reproducing vesicles coupled with the metabolic system. This approach was summarized in review articles [1,2,26,27,28,29,30]. In pioneering works, self-reproduction of vesicles was reported for an oleic acid/oleate giant vesicle system [31,32]. In the case of fatty acid vesicles, the morphology of the self-assembly is governed by the association of the carboxyl group, and vesicle formation is observed in the restricted pH region, where approximately half of the carboxyl groups are ionized [26,33]. Upon the addition of a droplet of oleic anhydride to an oleic acid/oleate giant vesicle suspension, the anhydride molecules are hydrolyzed to oleic acid/oleate within the bilayer of the vesicle. The vesicles supplemented with the oleic acid/oleate molecules display two self-reproduction processes: a budding pathway, where the mother vesicle deforms to a pear-like shape and then divides into two vesicles, and a birthing pathway, where the mother vesicle forms an inclusion vesicle that is then expelled from the mother vesicle, as shown in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies.Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions.Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. sakuma@bio.phys.tohoku.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus