Limits...
From vesicles to protocells: the roles of amphiphilic molecules.

Sakuma Y, Imai M - Life (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies.Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation.This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. sakuma@bio.phys.tohoku.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phase diagram of the area difference elasticity (ADE) model. Characteristic equilibrium shapes, pears, prolates (pro), oblates (obl), stomatocytes (sto) and elliptical non-axisymmetric shapes (nas), are illustrated for each phase and for the two limiting lines (Lpear and Lsto), where two spheres are connected by a very thin neck. First order discontinuous transitions (D) are shown as dashed lines; second order continuous transitions are shown as full lines. At the special point E, the radii of the two spheres of the limiting pear shape become equal. Special critical points are indicated by T1, T2 and critical end point CEP (taken from [13]).
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life-05-00651-f002: Phase diagram of the area difference elasticity (ADE) model. Characteristic equilibrium shapes, pears, prolates (pro), oblates (obl), stomatocytes (sto) and elliptical non-axisymmetric shapes (nas), are illustrated for each phase and for the two limiting lines (Lpear and Lsto), where two spheres are connected by a very thin neck. First order discontinuous transitions (D) are shown as dashed lines; second order continuous transitions are shown as full lines. At the special point E, the radii of the two spheres of the limiting pear shape become equal. Special critical points are indicated by T1, T2 and critical end point CEP (taken from [13]).

Mentions: The vesicle shapes obtained by the total energy minimization are mapped in a v − Δa0 phase diagram, as shown in Figure 2 [13]. This ADE theory is quantitatively supported by vesicle fluctuation analysis [14] and a 3D analysis of vesicle shapes [15]. Thus, to attain the vesicle deformation relevant to a protocell, we should control the reduced volume and the reduced intrinsic area difference by changing the external environment.


From vesicles to protocells: the roles of amphiphilic molecules.

Sakuma Y, Imai M - Life (Basel) (2015)

Phase diagram of the area difference elasticity (ADE) model. Characteristic equilibrium shapes, pears, prolates (pro), oblates (obl), stomatocytes (sto) and elliptical non-axisymmetric shapes (nas), are illustrated for each phase and for the two limiting lines (Lpear and Lsto), where two spheres are connected by a very thin neck. First order discontinuous transitions (D) are shown as dashed lines; second order continuous transitions are shown as full lines. At the special point E, the radii of the two spheres of the limiting pear shape become equal. Special critical points are indicated by T1, T2 and critical end point CEP (taken from [13]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390873&req=5

life-05-00651-f002: Phase diagram of the area difference elasticity (ADE) model. Characteristic equilibrium shapes, pears, prolates (pro), oblates (obl), stomatocytes (sto) and elliptical non-axisymmetric shapes (nas), are illustrated for each phase and for the two limiting lines (Lpear and Lsto), where two spheres are connected by a very thin neck. First order discontinuous transitions (D) are shown as dashed lines; second order continuous transitions are shown as full lines. At the special point E, the radii of the two spheres of the limiting pear shape become equal. Special critical points are indicated by T1, T2 and critical end point CEP (taken from [13]).
Mentions: The vesicle shapes obtained by the total energy minimization are mapped in a v − Δa0 phase diagram, as shown in Figure 2 [13]. This ADE theory is quantitatively supported by vesicle fluctuation analysis [14] and a 3D analysis of vesicle shapes [15]. Thus, to attain the vesicle deformation relevant to a protocell, we should control the reduced volume and the reduced intrinsic area difference by changing the external environment.

Bottom Line: It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies.Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation.This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. sakuma@bio.phys.tohoku.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus