Limits...
From formamide to RNA, the path is tenuous but continuous.

Pino S, Sponer JE, Costanzo G, Saladino R, Mauro ED - Life (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Reactions of formamide (NH2COH) in the presence of catalysts of both terrestrial and meteoritic origin yield, in plausible and variegated conditions, a large panel of precursors of (pre)genetic and (pre)metabolic interest.Formamide chemistry potentially satisfies all of the steps from the very initial precursors to RNA.Water chemistry enters the scene in RNA non-enzymatic synthesis and recombination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fondazione "Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci-Bolognetti" c/o Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie "Charles Darwin", "Sapienza" Università di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. samantapino78@libero.it.

ABSTRACT
Reactions of formamide (NH2COH) in the presence of catalysts of both terrestrial and meteoritic origin yield, in plausible and variegated conditions, a large panel of precursors of (pre)genetic and (pre)metabolic interest. Formamide chemistry potentially satisfies all of the steps from the very initial precursors to RNA. Water chemistry enters the scene in RNA non-enzymatic synthesis and recombination.

No MeSH data available.


Syntheses from formamide (see [20,21,22,25]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390857&req=5

life-05-00372-f001: Syntheses from formamide (see [20,21,22,25]).

Mentions: One notable exception is the studies by Yamada et al., who, in 1978, reported [17,18] that heating liquid NH2COH at 160 °C yields low amounts of purine, while adenine can be synthesized in traces when the reaction is performed in the presence of added HCN [17]. These same authors showed [18] by nuclear magnetic resonance experiments that three equivalents of HCN and two of NH2COH are embedded in the heterocyclic ring through a C-N bond fission process. By heating formamide (100–160 °C) in the presence of simple catalysts, we observed that large panels of prebiotically relevant compounds could be obtained. An analytical effort started in 2001 [19], which has been pursued to the present day, thoroughly examining the effect on formamide-based, prebiotically relevant syntheses of a large spectrum of catalysts encompassing terrestrial and meteorite minerals. As for the terrestrial mineral-based catalysts, the products obtained and the numerous detailed chemical aspects of these syntheses were recently reviewed [20,21] (Figure 1). The products obtained in the presence of 12 different meteorites were also reported [22], detailing non-fastidious syntheses of all the extant RNA and DNA nucleic bases, 13 amino acids, 18 carboxylic acids, including a solid representation of the components of the TCA cycle, and condensing agents, such as carbodiimide-urea. In particular, acyclonucleosides were also obtained [23] (Figure 2). The energy sources tested were thermal (as reviewed in [20,21]), various wave lengths [23,24] of light and high-energy irradiation. A partial account of the syntheses from formamide performed with irradiation by a 165-MeV proton beam at the Dzelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (DLNP) Phasotron (4 min at a dose rate of 1.5 Gy/min) in Dubna (Russia) has appeared [25] and has reported that in the presence of the stony iron meteorite, North-West Africa NWA 4482, as a catalyst, the nucleoside, uridine, is synthesized (yield = 0.54 μg/1.5 mL formamide) (Figure 1), along with a large panel of other compounds.


From formamide to RNA, the path is tenuous but continuous.

Pino S, Sponer JE, Costanzo G, Saladino R, Mauro ED - Life (Basel) (2015)

Syntheses from formamide (see [20,21,22,25]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390857&req=5

life-05-00372-f001: Syntheses from formamide (see [20,21,22,25]).
Mentions: One notable exception is the studies by Yamada et al., who, in 1978, reported [17,18] that heating liquid NH2COH at 160 °C yields low amounts of purine, while adenine can be synthesized in traces when the reaction is performed in the presence of added HCN [17]. These same authors showed [18] by nuclear magnetic resonance experiments that three equivalents of HCN and two of NH2COH are embedded in the heterocyclic ring through a C-N bond fission process. By heating formamide (100–160 °C) in the presence of simple catalysts, we observed that large panels of prebiotically relevant compounds could be obtained. An analytical effort started in 2001 [19], which has been pursued to the present day, thoroughly examining the effect on formamide-based, prebiotically relevant syntheses of a large spectrum of catalysts encompassing terrestrial and meteorite minerals. As for the terrestrial mineral-based catalysts, the products obtained and the numerous detailed chemical aspects of these syntheses were recently reviewed [20,21] (Figure 1). The products obtained in the presence of 12 different meteorites were also reported [22], detailing non-fastidious syntheses of all the extant RNA and DNA nucleic bases, 13 amino acids, 18 carboxylic acids, including a solid representation of the components of the TCA cycle, and condensing agents, such as carbodiimide-urea. In particular, acyclonucleosides were also obtained [23] (Figure 2). The energy sources tested were thermal (as reviewed in [20,21]), various wave lengths [23,24] of light and high-energy irradiation. A partial account of the syntheses from formamide performed with irradiation by a 165-MeV proton beam at the Dzelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (DLNP) Phasotron (4 min at a dose rate of 1.5 Gy/min) in Dubna (Russia) has appeared [25] and has reported that in the presence of the stony iron meteorite, North-West Africa NWA 4482, as a catalyst, the nucleoside, uridine, is synthesized (yield = 0.54 μg/1.5 mL formamide) (Figure 1), along with a large panel of other compounds.

Bottom Line: Reactions of formamide (NH2COH) in the presence of catalysts of both terrestrial and meteoritic origin yield, in plausible and variegated conditions, a large panel of precursors of (pre)genetic and (pre)metabolic interest.Formamide chemistry potentially satisfies all of the steps from the very initial precursors to RNA.Water chemistry enters the scene in RNA non-enzymatic synthesis and recombination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fondazione "Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci-Bolognetti" c/o Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie "Charles Darwin", "Sapienza" Università di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. samantapino78@libero.it.

ABSTRACT
Reactions of formamide (NH2COH) in the presence of catalysts of both terrestrial and meteoritic origin yield, in plausible and variegated conditions, a large panel of precursors of (pre)genetic and (pre)metabolic interest. Formamide chemistry potentially satisfies all of the steps from the very initial precursors to RNA. Water chemistry enters the scene in RNA non-enzymatic synthesis and recombination.

No MeSH data available.