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Nanoporous silica-based protocells at multiple scales for designs of life and nanomedicine.

Sun J, Jakobsson E, Wang Y, Brinker CJ - Life (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted.In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine.Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1) to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2) to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. jiesun2@illinois.edu.

ABSTRACT
Various protocell models have been constructed de novo with the bottom-up approach. Here we describe a silica-based protocell composed of a nanoporous amorphous silica core encapsulated within a lipid bilayer built by self-assembly that provides for independent definition of cell interior and the surface membrane. In this review, we will first describe the essential features of this architecture and then summarize the current development of silica-based protocells at both micro- and nanoscale with diverse functionalities. As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted. In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine. Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1) to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2) to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

No MeSH data available.


The cartoon depicts the nanoporous silica-based protocell for drug delivery.
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life-05-00214-f003: The cartoon depicts the nanoporous silica-based protocell for drug delivery.

Mentions: We have designed and optimized protocell-based multicomponent cargo delivery, specific to liver cancer cells, combining features of nanoporous silica particles and liposomes [4] (Figure 3). The lipid bilayer was modified with a targeting peptide, a fusogenic peptide, and PEG, to achieve targeting specificity, endosomal escape and extended circulation time, respectively. The nanoporous silica cores (120 nm sphere size, 2.5 nm pore size) were shown to accommodate various therapeutic and diagnostic cargos, such as quantum dots for imaging, chemotherapeutic drugs and nucleic acid. Comparative studies with liposomes of identical bilayer compositions and size were done to demonstrate the advantage of the protocells with respect to features important for nanomedicine: enhanced capacity, selectivity and stability. The improved capacity is a result of the high surface area of the nanoporous silica core while the lipid-silica interaction increases the stability to reduce cargo leakage in vivo. In addition, the nanoporous support also increased lateral mobility of molecules such as targeting peptides in the lipid bilayer (as compared to both liposomes or lipid bilayer on non-porous solid support), which contribute to the selectivity and efficiency of the peptide. Together, the synergistic combination of two established and well-studied materials allows high delivery efficiency and improved targeting specificity, which are essential features for effective nanomedicine with maximal target effects and minimal off-target effects.


Nanoporous silica-based protocells at multiple scales for designs of life and nanomedicine.

Sun J, Jakobsson E, Wang Y, Brinker CJ - Life (Basel) (2015)

The cartoon depicts the nanoporous silica-based protocell for drug delivery.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390849&req=5

life-05-00214-f003: The cartoon depicts the nanoporous silica-based protocell for drug delivery.
Mentions: We have designed and optimized protocell-based multicomponent cargo delivery, specific to liver cancer cells, combining features of nanoporous silica particles and liposomes [4] (Figure 3). The lipid bilayer was modified with a targeting peptide, a fusogenic peptide, and PEG, to achieve targeting specificity, endosomal escape and extended circulation time, respectively. The nanoporous silica cores (120 nm sphere size, 2.5 nm pore size) were shown to accommodate various therapeutic and diagnostic cargos, such as quantum dots for imaging, chemotherapeutic drugs and nucleic acid. Comparative studies with liposomes of identical bilayer compositions and size were done to demonstrate the advantage of the protocells with respect to features important for nanomedicine: enhanced capacity, selectivity and stability. The improved capacity is a result of the high surface area of the nanoporous silica core while the lipid-silica interaction increases the stability to reduce cargo leakage in vivo. In addition, the nanoporous support also increased lateral mobility of molecules such as targeting peptides in the lipid bilayer (as compared to both liposomes or lipid bilayer on non-porous solid support), which contribute to the selectivity and efficiency of the peptide. Together, the synergistic combination of two established and well-studied materials allows high delivery efficiency and improved targeting specificity, which are essential features for effective nanomedicine with maximal target effects and minimal off-target effects.

Bottom Line: As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted.In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine.Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1) to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2) to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. jiesun2@illinois.edu.

ABSTRACT
Various protocell models have been constructed de novo with the bottom-up approach. Here we describe a silica-based protocell composed of a nanoporous amorphous silica core encapsulated within a lipid bilayer built by self-assembly that provides for independent definition of cell interior and the surface membrane. In this review, we will first describe the essential features of this architecture and then summarize the current development of silica-based protocells at both micro- and nanoscale with diverse functionalities. As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted. In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine. Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1) to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2) to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

No MeSH data available.