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Nanoporous silica-based protocells at multiple scales for designs of life and nanomedicine.

Sun J, Jakobsson E, Wang Y, Brinker CJ - Life (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted.In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine.Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1) to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2) to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. jiesun2@illinois.edu.

ABSTRACT
Various protocell models have been constructed de novo with the bottom-up approach. Here we describe a silica-based protocell composed of a nanoporous amorphous silica core encapsulated within a lipid bilayer built by self-assembly that provides for independent definition of cell interior and the surface membrane. In this review, we will first describe the essential features of this architecture and then summarize the current development of silica-based protocells at both micro- and nanoscale with diverse functionalities. As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted. In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine. Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1) to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2) to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

No MeSH data available.


(A) The design of the FRET-based Shp2 biosensor; (B) The protocells visualized with coated DOPC membranes with 1% Texas Red- DHPE and loaded fluorescent Shp2 biosensor inside the silica cell replicas; (C) In the presence of loaded PDGFR kinase, the FRET of the Shp2 biosensor inside silica cells increased upon ATP addition.
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life-05-00214-f002: (A) The design of the FRET-based Shp2 biosensor; (B) The protocells visualized with coated DOPC membranes with 1% Texas Red- DHPE and loaded fluorescent Shp2 biosensor inside the silica cell replicas; (C) In the presence of loaded PDGFR kinase, the FRET of the Shp2 biosensor inside silica cells increased upon ATP addition.

Mentions: Using an Shp2 biosensor based on FRET, we have found that the nature of intramolecular interactions between domains within Shp2 upon extracellular stimulation of cells by PDGF is quite different from the corresponding interaction in solution as stimulated by PDGFRβ kinase (the putative intracellular signaling domain activated by PDGF binding) [54]. The engineered cellular entity with controllable environment and compositions based on the protocell allows us to gain insights into the fundamental principles governing the molecular regulation under different environments. A FRET biosensor containing a full length Shp2 flanked by an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) and a yellow fluorescent protein variant (YPet) was constructed [54]. The purified Shp2 biosensor can be phosphorylated by PDGFRβ kinase in vitro and undergo subsequent conformational change, causing a corresponding FRET increase (Figure 2A). We utilize this established biochemical reaction between Shp2 biosensor and PDGFRβ kinase to study its reconstitution in protocells, which can be monitor by FRET imaging.


Nanoporous silica-based protocells at multiple scales for designs of life and nanomedicine.

Sun J, Jakobsson E, Wang Y, Brinker CJ - Life (Basel) (2015)

(A) The design of the FRET-based Shp2 biosensor; (B) The protocells visualized with coated DOPC membranes with 1% Texas Red- DHPE and loaded fluorescent Shp2 biosensor inside the silica cell replicas; (C) In the presence of loaded PDGFR kinase, the FRET of the Shp2 biosensor inside silica cells increased upon ATP addition.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390849&req=5

life-05-00214-f002: (A) The design of the FRET-based Shp2 biosensor; (B) The protocells visualized with coated DOPC membranes with 1% Texas Red- DHPE and loaded fluorescent Shp2 biosensor inside the silica cell replicas; (C) In the presence of loaded PDGFR kinase, the FRET of the Shp2 biosensor inside silica cells increased upon ATP addition.
Mentions: Using an Shp2 biosensor based on FRET, we have found that the nature of intramolecular interactions between domains within Shp2 upon extracellular stimulation of cells by PDGF is quite different from the corresponding interaction in solution as stimulated by PDGFRβ kinase (the putative intracellular signaling domain activated by PDGF binding) [54]. The engineered cellular entity with controllable environment and compositions based on the protocell allows us to gain insights into the fundamental principles governing the molecular regulation under different environments. A FRET biosensor containing a full length Shp2 flanked by an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) and a yellow fluorescent protein variant (YPet) was constructed [54]. The purified Shp2 biosensor can be phosphorylated by PDGFRβ kinase in vitro and undergo subsequent conformational change, causing a corresponding FRET increase (Figure 2A). We utilize this established biochemical reaction between Shp2 biosensor and PDGFRβ kinase to study its reconstitution in protocells, which can be monitor by FRET imaging.

Bottom Line: As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted.In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine.Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1) to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2) to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. jiesun2@illinois.edu.

ABSTRACT
Various protocell models have been constructed de novo with the bottom-up approach. Here we describe a silica-based protocell composed of a nanoporous amorphous silica core encapsulated within a lipid bilayer built by self-assembly that provides for independent definition of cell interior and the surface membrane. In this review, we will first describe the essential features of this architecture and then summarize the current development of silica-based protocells at both micro- and nanoscale with diverse functionalities. As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted. In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine. Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1) to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2) to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

No MeSH data available.