Limits...
Sucrose in cyanobacteria: from a salt-response molecule to play a key role in nitrogen fixation.

Kolman MA, Nishi CN, Perez-Cenci M, Salerno GL - Life (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In those prokaryotes, sucrose accumulation has been associated with salt acclimation, and considered as a compatible solute in low-salt tolerant strains.In the last years, functional characterizations of sucrose metabolizing enzymes, metabolic control analysis, cellular localization of gene expressions, and reverse genetic experiments have revealed that sucrose metabolism is crucial in the diazotrophic growth of heterocystic strains, and besides, that it can be connected to glycogen synthesis.This article briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they might have evolved taking into account the phylogenetic analyses of sucrose enzymes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Biotecnología (INBIOTEC-CONICET) and Fundación para Investigaciones Biológicas Aplicadas (FIBA), Mar del Plata B7600DHN, Argentina. mkolman@fiba.org.ar.

ABSTRACT
In the biosphere, sucrose is mainly synthesized in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, green algae and land plants, as part of the carbon dioxide assimilation pathway. Even though its central position in the functional biology of plants is well documented, much less is known about the role of sucrose in cyanobacteria. In those prokaryotes, sucrose accumulation has been associated with salt acclimation, and considered as a compatible solute in low-salt tolerant strains. In the last years, functional characterizations of sucrose metabolizing enzymes, metabolic control analysis, cellular localization of gene expressions, and reverse genetic experiments have revealed that sucrose metabolism is crucial in the diazotrophic growth of heterocystic strains, and besides, that it can be connected to glycogen synthesis. This article briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they might have evolved taking into account the phylogenetic analyses of sucrose enzymes.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic representation of sucrose roles along the hypothetical evolutionary pathway of cyanobacteria. The phylogenetic relationships among species are depicted according to rDNA 16S sequence analysis. Sucrose metabolism is likely to be originated in freshwater habitat and multiple sucrose synthesis genes might have been present in a cyanobacterial ancestor [27]. Sucrose synthesis is found in G. violaceus that has ancestral characteristics and diverged early within the radiation of cyanobacteria. A fusion of primordial GTD and PHD might have given rise to a hypothetical common-ancestral SPS (GTD-PHD) gene, which is found mostly in the marine Prochlorococcus/Synechococcus clade. Sucrose has been identified as a primary compatible solute in Prochlorococcus, and as secondary osmolyte in Synechococcus strains and in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 [36]. The involvement of sucrose in glycogen and polysaccharides production seems to be due to the emergence of SuS (dotted line), crucial in filamentous heterocyst-forming strains [20,21], as well as in strains (such as G. violaceus, Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Microcystisaeruginosa PCC 7806), where SuS are likely to be acquired by lateral gene transfer (dashed lines). In heterocystic strains, sucrose is a key molecule during nitrogen fixation and it was proposed as a carrier molecule to transport carbon along the filament. It is also involved in glycogen synthesis and in other polysaccharide accumulation. Plant sucrose metabolism has been acquired during the endosymbiotic origin of the chloroplast at the time of the cyanobacterial phylogenetic radiation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390843&req=5

life-05-00102-f004: Schematic representation of sucrose roles along the hypothetical evolutionary pathway of cyanobacteria. The phylogenetic relationships among species are depicted according to rDNA 16S sequence analysis. Sucrose metabolism is likely to be originated in freshwater habitat and multiple sucrose synthesis genes might have been present in a cyanobacterial ancestor [27]. Sucrose synthesis is found in G. violaceus that has ancestral characteristics and diverged early within the radiation of cyanobacteria. A fusion of primordial GTD and PHD might have given rise to a hypothetical common-ancestral SPS (GTD-PHD) gene, which is found mostly in the marine Prochlorococcus/Synechococcus clade. Sucrose has been identified as a primary compatible solute in Prochlorococcus, and as secondary osmolyte in Synechococcus strains and in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 [36]. The involvement of sucrose in glycogen and polysaccharides production seems to be due to the emergence of SuS (dotted line), crucial in filamentous heterocyst-forming strains [20,21], as well as in strains (such as G. violaceus, Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Microcystisaeruginosa PCC 7806), where SuS are likely to be acquired by lateral gene transfer (dashed lines). In heterocystic strains, sucrose is a key molecule during nitrogen fixation and it was proposed as a carrier molecule to transport carbon along the filament. It is also involved in glycogen synthesis and in other polysaccharide accumulation. Plant sucrose metabolism has been acquired during the endosymbiotic origin of the chloroplast at the time of the cyanobacterial phylogenetic radiation.

Mentions: In the last two decades, a comprehensive set of data has contributed to reveal that sucrose, aside from being a compatible solute in response to salinity, can play other crucial roles in the life of many cyanobacteria. Figure 4 summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they are related to cyanobacterial phylogeny and to the occurrence of sucrose synthesis proteins.


Sucrose in cyanobacteria: from a salt-response molecule to play a key role in nitrogen fixation.

Kolman MA, Nishi CN, Perez-Cenci M, Salerno GL - Life (Basel) (2015)

Schematic representation of sucrose roles along the hypothetical evolutionary pathway of cyanobacteria. The phylogenetic relationships among species are depicted according to rDNA 16S sequence analysis. Sucrose metabolism is likely to be originated in freshwater habitat and multiple sucrose synthesis genes might have been present in a cyanobacterial ancestor [27]. Sucrose synthesis is found in G. violaceus that has ancestral characteristics and diverged early within the radiation of cyanobacteria. A fusion of primordial GTD and PHD might have given rise to a hypothetical common-ancestral SPS (GTD-PHD) gene, which is found mostly in the marine Prochlorococcus/Synechococcus clade. Sucrose has been identified as a primary compatible solute in Prochlorococcus, and as secondary osmolyte in Synechococcus strains and in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 [36]. The involvement of sucrose in glycogen and polysaccharides production seems to be due to the emergence of SuS (dotted line), crucial in filamentous heterocyst-forming strains [20,21], as well as in strains (such as G. violaceus, Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Microcystisaeruginosa PCC 7806), where SuS are likely to be acquired by lateral gene transfer (dashed lines). In heterocystic strains, sucrose is a key molecule during nitrogen fixation and it was proposed as a carrier molecule to transport carbon along the filament. It is also involved in glycogen synthesis and in other polysaccharide accumulation. Plant sucrose metabolism has been acquired during the endosymbiotic origin of the chloroplast at the time of the cyanobacterial phylogenetic radiation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390843&req=5

life-05-00102-f004: Schematic representation of sucrose roles along the hypothetical evolutionary pathway of cyanobacteria. The phylogenetic relationships among species are depicted according to rDNA 16S sequence analysis. Sucrose metabolism is likely to be originated in freshwater habitat and multiple sucrose synthesis genes might have been present in a cyanobacterial ancestor [27]. Sucrose synthesis is found in G. violaceus that has ancestral characteristics and diverged early within the radiation of cyanobacteria. A fusion of primordial GTD and PHD might have given rise to a hypothetical common-ancestral SPS (GTD-PHD) gene, which is found mostly in the marine Prochlorococcus/Synechococcus clade. Sucrose has been identified as a primary compatible solute in Prochlorococcus, and as secondary osmolyte in Synechococcus strains and in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 [36]. The involvement of sucrose in glycogen and polysaccharides production seems to be due to the emergence of SuS (dotted line), crucial in filamentous heterocyst-forming strains [20,21], as well as in strains (such as G. violaceus, Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Microcystisaeruginosa PCC 7806), where SuS are likely to be acquired by lateral gene transfer (dashed lines). In heterocystic strains, sucrose is a key molecule during nitrogen fixation and it was proposed as a carrier molecule to transport carbon along the filament. It is also involved in glycogen synthesis and in other polysaccharide accumulation. Plant sucrose metabolism has been acquired during the endosymbiotic origin of the chloroplast at the time of the cyanobacterial phylogenetic radiation.
Mentions: In the last two decades, a comprehensive set of data has contributed to reveal that sucrose, aside from being a compatible solute in response to salinity, can play other crucial roles in the life of many cyanobacteria. Figure 4 summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they are related to cyanobacterial phylogeny and to the occurrence of sucrose synthesis proteins.

Bottom Line: In those prokaryotes, sucrose accumulation has been associated with salt acclimation, and considered as a compatible solute in low-salt tolerant strains.In the last years, functional characterizations of sucrose metabolizing enzymes, metabolic control analysis, cellular localization of gene expressions, and reverse genetic experiments have revealed that sucrose metabolism is crucial in the diazotrophic growth of heterocystic strains, and besides, that it can be connected to glycogen synthesis.This article briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they might have evolved taking into account the phylogenetic analyses of sucrose enzymes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Biotecnología (INBIOTEC-CONICET) and Fundación para Investigaciones Biológicas Aplicadas (FIBA), Mar del Plata B7600DHN, Argentina. mkolman@fiba.org.ar.

ABSTRACT
In the biosphere, sucrose is mainly synthesized in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, green algae and land plants, as part of the carbon dioxide assimilation pathway. Even though its central position in the functional biology of plants is well documented, much less is known about the role of sucrose in cyanobacteria. In those prokaryotes, sucrose accumulation has been associated with salt acclimation, and considered as a compatible solute in low-salt tolerant strains. In the last years, functional characterizations of sucrose metabolizing enzymes, metabolic control analysis, cellular localization of gene expressions, and reverse genetic experiments have revealed that sucrose metabolism is crucial in the diazotrophic growth of heterocystic strains, and besides, that it can be connected to glycogen synthesis. This article briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they might have evolved taking into account the phylogenetic analyses of sucrose enzymes.

No MeSH data available.