Limits...
Occurrence of Far-Red Light Photoacclimation (FaRLiP) in Diverse Cyanobacteria.

Gan F, Shen G, Bryant DA - Life (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: JSC-1.After acclimation all five strains could grow continuously in far-red light.We conclude that these photosynthetic gene clusters are diagnostic of the capacity to photoacclimate to and grow in far-red light.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. fxg142@psu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Cyanobacteria have evolved a number of acclimation strategies to sense and respond to changing nutrient and light conditions. Leptolyngbya sp. JSC-1 was recently shown to photoacclimate to far-red light by extensively remodeling its photosystem (PS) I, PS II and phycobilisome complexes, thereby gaining the ability to grow in far-red light. A 21-gene photosynthetic gene cluster (rfpA/B/C, apcA2/B2/D2/E2/D3, psbA3/D3/C2/B2/ H2/A4, psaA2/B2/L2/I2/F2/J2) that is specifically expressed in far-red light encodes the core subunits of the three major photosynthetic complexes. The growth responses to far-red light were studied here for five additional cyanobacterial strains, each of which has a gene cluster similar to that in Leptolyngbya sp. JSC-1. After acclimation all five strains could grow continuously in far-red light. Under these growth conditions each strain synthesizes chlorophylls d, f and a after photoacclimation, and each strain produces modified forms of PS I, PS II (and phycobiliproteins) that absorb light between 700 and 800 nm. We conclude that these photosynthetic gene clusters are diagnostic of the capacity to photoacclimate to and grow in far-red light. Given the diversity of terrestrial environments from which these cyanobacteria were isolated, it is likely that FaRLiP plays an important role in optimizing photosynthesis in terrestrial environments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gene clusters similar to the 21-gene cluster in Leptolyngbya JSC-1 occur in five other cyanobacteria that belong to all five sections of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Color-coding for genes: psa genes for core subunits of PS I (red); psb genes for core subunits of PS II (green); apc genes for core subunits of the PBS (blue); rfp genes for the knotless phytochrome (RfpA) and response regulators RfpB and RfpC (brown); and conserved hypothetical protein (Hyp, black). All other genes unrelated to photosynthesis are shown in gray. Locus designations are shown for the genes from Leptolyngbya JSC-1. The rfpA gene in Fischerella thermalis is divided into two open reading frames because of sequencing or assembly errors.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390838&req=5

life-05-00004-f001: Gene clusters similar to the 21-gene cluster in Leptolyngbya JSC-1 occur in five other cyanobacteria that belong to all five sections of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Color-coding for genes: psa genes for core subunits of PS I (red); psb genes for core subunits of PS II (green); apc genes for core subunits of the PBS (blue); rfp genes for the knotless phytochrome (RfpA) and response regulators RfpB and RfpC (brown); and conserved hypothetical protein (Hyp, black). All other genes unrelated to photosynthesis are shown in gray. Locus designations are shown for the genes from Leptolyngbya JSC-1. The rfpA gene in Fischerella thermalis is divided into two open reading frames because of sequencing or assembly errors.

Mentions: Gan et al. [28] found that the Leptolyngbya JSC-1 genome encodes paralogous genes for the core subunits of PS I, PS II, and PBS that are specifically expressed in FRL. These genes are clustered together with genes encoding a knotless phytochrome (RfpA), a CheY-like signal receiver (RfpC), and a DNA-binding response regulator (RfpB) in a 21-gene cluster (Figure 1). Figure 1 shows that similar gene clusters occur in five additional cyanobacterial strains studied here: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7335, Chroococcidiopsis thermalis PCC 7203, Calothrix sp. PCC 7507, Fisherella thermalis PCC 7521, and Chlorogloeopsis sp. PCC 9212. Compared to Leptolyngbya JSC-1, some of the clusters in these organisms contain additional genes or have undergone rearrangements, but the clusters in all five organisms have orthologs of 17 genes (psaA2, psaB2, psaI2, psaL2, psaF2, psaJ2, psbA3, psbA4, psaB2, psbC2, psbD3, psbH2, apcA2, apcB2, apcD3, apcD4, and apcE2), which encode core subunits of the three major photosynthetic complexes that are expressed and used during phototrophic growth in FRL [28]. We hypothesized that this gene cluster is diagnostic of cells that can perform FaRLiP, and we further predicted that each of these five strains would undergo similar photoacclimative changes as Leptolyngbya JSC-1 in response to exposure to FRL.


Occurrence of Far-Red Light Photoacclimation (FaRLiP) in Diverse Cyanobacteria.

Gan F, Shen G, Bryant DA - Life (Basel) (2014)

Gene clusters similar to the 21-gene cluster in Leptolyngbya JSC-1 occur in five other cyanobacteria that belong to all five sections of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Color-coding for genes: psa genes for core subunits of PS I (red); psb genes for core subunits of PS II (green); apc genes for core subunits of the PBS (blue); rfp genes for the knotless phytochrome (RfpA) and response regulators RfpB and RfpC (brown); and conserved hypothetical protein (Hyp, black). All other genes unrelated to photosynthesis are shown in gray. Locus designations are shown for the genes from Leptolyngbya JSC-1. The rfpA gene in Fischerella thermalis is divided into two open reading frames because of sequencing or assembly errors.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390838&req=5

life-05-00004-f001: Gene clusters similar to the 21-gene cluster in Leptolyngbya JSC-1 occur in five other cyanobacteria that belong to all five sections of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Color-coding for genes: psa genes for core subunits of PS I (red); psb genes for core subunits of PS II (green); apc genes for core subunits of the PBS (blue); rfp genes for the knotless phytochrome (RfpA) and response regulators RfpB and RfpC (brown); and conserved hypothetical protein (Hyp, black). All other genes unrelated to photosynthesis are shown in gray. Locus designations are shown for the genes from Leptolyngbya JSC-1. The rfpA gene in Fischerella thermalis is divided into two open reading frames because of sequencing or assembly errors.
Mentions: Gan et al. [28] found that the Leptolyngbya JSC-1 genome encodes paralogous genes for the core subunits of PS I, PS II, and PBS that are specifically expressed in FRL. These genes are clustered together with genes encoding a knotless phytochrome (RfpA), a CheY-like signal receiver (RfpC), and a DNA-binding response regulator (RfpB) in a 21-gene cluster (Figure 1). Figure 1 shows that similar gene clusters occur in five additional cyanobacterial strains studied here: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7335, Chroococcidiopsis thermalis PCC 7203, Calothrix sp. PCC 7507, Fisherella thermalis PCC 7521, and Chlorogloeopsis sp. PCC 9212. Compared to Leptolyngbya JSC-1, some of the clusters in these organisms contain additional genes or have undergone rearrangements, but the clusters in all five organisms have orthologs of 17 genes (psaA2, psaB2, psaI2, psaL2, psaF2, psaJ2, psbA3, psbA4, psaB2, psbC2, psbD3, psbH2, apcA2, apcB2, apcD3, apcD4, and apcE2), which encode core subunits of the three major photosynthetic complexes that are expressed and used during phototrophic growth in FRL [28]. We hypothesized that this gene cluster is diagnostic of cells that can perform FaRLiP, and we further predicted that each of these five strains would undergo similar photoacclimative changes as Leptolyngbya JSC-1 in response to exposure to FRL.

Bottom Line: JSC-1.After acclimation all five strains could grow continuously in far-red light.We conclude that these photosynthetic gene clusters are diagnostic of the capacity to photoacclimate to and grow in far-red light.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. fxg142@psu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Cyanobacteria have evolved a number of acclimation strategies to sense and respond to changing nutrient and light conditions. Leptolyngbya sp. JSC-1 was recently shown to photoacclimate to far-red light by extensively remodeling its photosystem (PS) I, PS II and phycobilisome complexes, thereby gaining the ability to grow in far-red light. A 21-gene photosynthetic gene cluster (rfpA/B/C, apcA2/B2/D2/E2/D3, psbA3/D3/C2/B2/ H2/A4, psaA2/B2/L2/I2/F2/J2) that is specifically expressed in far-red light encodes the core subunits of the three major photosynthetic complexes. The growth responses to far-red light were studied here for five additional cyanobacterial strains, each of which has a gene cluster similar to that in Leptolyngbya sp. JSC-1. After acclimation all five strains could grow continuously in far-red light. Under these growth conditions each strain synthesizes chlorophylls d, f and a after photoacclimation, and each strain produces modified forms of PS I, PS II (and phycobiliproteins) that absorb light between 700 and 800 nm. We conclude that these photosynthetic gene clusters are diagnostic of the capacity to photoacclimate to and grow in far-red light. Given the diversity of terrestrial environments from which these cyanobacteria were isolated, it is likely that FaRLiP plays an important role in optimizing photosynthesis in terrestrial environments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus