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Neuroplasticity beyond Sounds: Neural Adaptations Following Long-Term Musical Aesthetic Experiences.

Reybrouck M, Brattico E - Brain Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component), which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the "agent".In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment.The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Musicology, Faculty of Arts, KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Blijde-Inkomststraat 21, P.O. Box 3313, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Mark.Reybrouck@arts.kuleuven.be.

ABSTRACT
Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component), which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the "agent". In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic illustration of the subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience (simplified and adapted from Brattico et al. [9]) and how repeated exposure modifies the internal structure of the music agent, consequently changing his or her external environment and internal state in a continuous loop.
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brainsci-05-00069-f002: Schematic illustration of the subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience (simplified and adapted from Brattico et al. [9]) and how repeated exposure modifies the internal structure of the music agent, consequently changing his or her external environment and internal state in a continuous loop.

Mentions: In this contribution, we focus on how the prolonged exposure to an aesthetic musical experience in musicians might alter each stage of the process. For doing so, we integrate the previous model by Brattico et al. with concepts from “second-order cybernetics” [15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22], which means that we propose to view the individual exposed to a musical aesthetic experience not as “reactive”, but as an “adaptive” device, with contingent changes of its internal state to respond to the immediate demands of the sounding environment, which in the long-term may lead to changes of its internal structure (for a schematic representation of how these changes are implemented, see Figure 1 and Figure 2 ([22,23,24,25], and for a general discussion of adaptive devices, see [26,27]). In other words, the role of the music listener, performer or composer is that of an active “agent” coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. Hence, “music agent” is seen here as a broad category, somewhat analogous to the concept of “music user” that was proposed by Laske [28] to encompass all subjects that experience music in some way. The environmental context and its related dynamics become central, therefore, when considering an aesthetic experience, not only because they allow (or not) a dedicated voluntary attention state for contemplation of a piece of art, but also since they impact on putative motor actions, described as “aesthetic affordances” or “structural action invitations” [10], such as walking around an installation, approaching a sculpture or closing the eyes to focus on the music.


Neuroplasticity beyond Sounds: Neural Adaptations Following Long-Term Musical Aesthetic Experiences.

Reybrouck M, Brattico E - Brain Sci (2015)

Schematic illustration of the subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience (simplified and adapted from Brattico et al. [9]) and how repeated exposure modifies the internal structure of the music agent, consequently changing his or her external environment and internal state in a continuous loop.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390792&req=5

brainsci-05-00069-f002: Schematic illustration of the subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience (simplified and adapted from Brattico et al. [9]) and how repeated exposure modifies the internal structure of the music agent, consequently changing his or her external environment and internal state in a continuous loop.
Mentions: In this contribution, we focus on how the prolonged exposure to an aesthetic musical experience in musicians might alter each stage of the process. For doing so, we integrate the previous model by Brattico et al. with concepts from “second-order cybernetics” [15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22], which means that we propose to view the individual exposed to a musical aesthetic experience not as “reactive”, but as an “adaptive” device, with contingent changes of its internal state to respond to the immediate demands of the sounding environment, which in the long-term may lead to changes of its internal structure (for a schematic representation of how these changes are implemented, see Figure 1 and Figure 2 ([22,23,24,25], and for a general discussion of adaptive devices, see [26,27]). In other words, the role of the music listener, performer or composer is that of an active “agent” coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. Hence, “music agent” is seen here as a broad category, somewhat analogous to the concept of “music user” that was proposed by Laske [28] to encompass all subjects that experience music in some way. The environmental context and its related dynamics become central, therefore, when considering an aesthetic experience, not only because they allow (or not) a dedicated voluntary attention state for contemplation of a piece of art, but also since they impact on putative motor actions, described as “aesthetic affordances” or “structural action invitations” [10], such as walking around an installation, approaching a sculpture or closing the eyes to focus on the music.

Bottom Line: We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component), which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the "agent".In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment.The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Musicology, Faculty of Arts, KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Blijde-Inkomststraat 21, P.O. Box 3313, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Mark.Reybrouck@arts.kuleuven.be.

ABSTRACT
Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component), which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the "agent". In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus