Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry.
Bottom Line: Occupational safety in the factories was assessed by a trained expert following a checklist, and dust and endotoxin levels in different work areas were measured.This section also displayed the poorest occupational safety ratings and the highest levels of inhalable cotton dust (mean±SD 4.6±2.5 vs 0.95±0.65 mg/m(3) in compact units).More health symptoms were reported from small weaving factories (power looms).
Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Federal Government Polyclinic (Post-graduate Medical Institute), Islamabad, Pakistan.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Dust levels were generally high in most of the plants investigated (figure 1). The various measures of particle mass (PM2.5, PM10, alveolic, thoracic and inhalable) were all strongly and significantly correlated with each other, both overall and in each type of factory, namely spinning, weaving and compact. Expressed in terms of the smallest fraction (PM2.5), the average concentration of PM10 was 1.98×PM2.5 plus 917.68 µg (R2=0.8), of inhalable dust it was 2.06×PM2.5+1579.3 (0.7), of thoracic dust it was 2.12×PM2.5+1044.76 (0.78), and of alveolic it was 1.66×PM2.5+280.9 (0.94). Coarse particles (larger than 2.5 µm) therefore amounted to more than 50% of the total mass. Nevertheless, only results for PM2.5 are reported in detail because of the high correlation between the size classes.
Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Federal Government Polyclinic (Post-graduate Medical Institute), Islamabad, Pakistan.