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The transcriptional stress response of Candida albicans to weak organic acids.

Cottier F, Tan AS, Chen J, Lum J, Zolezzi F, Poidinger M, Pavelka N - G3 (Bethesda) (2015)

Bottom Line: Genes commonly up-regulated by WOAs were enriched in several iron transporters, which was associated with an overall decrease in intracellular iron concentrations.Moreover, chronic exposure to any WOA lead to down-regulation of RNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis genes, which resulted in significant reduction of total RNA levels and of ribosomal RNA in particular.In conclusion, this study suggests that gastrointestinal microbiota might directly influence C. albicans physiology via production of WOAs, with possible implications of how this fungus interacts with its host in both health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138648, Singapore.

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The core transcriptional response of Candida albicans to weak organic acids (WOAs): (A−C) Pair-wise overlap analysis between individual lists of genes up- or down-regulated under the indicated conditions. Each heat map is color-coded based on Fisher exact test P values between the indicated pair of gene lists according to the color key next to each heat map. Only P values for significant overlaps (i.e., odds ratio > 1) are reported. (A) Data relative to lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid are from the present study. (B−C) Gene lists related to acetic acid treatment, iron depletion, heat shock, hyperosmotic stress, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, Congo red treatment, serum stimulation, and low pH were obtained from previously published work (Enjalbert et al. 2003; Bensen et al. 2004; Lan et al. 2004; Ramsdale et al. 2008; Bruno et al. 2010) and filtered based on a twofold change threshold. (D) Four-way Venn diagram representing the number of shared and unique genes identified as differentially expressed in each WOA treatment. The figure only reports genes significantly regulated compared to the untreated control (De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium [MRS]) at all four time points, but not in MRS pH 5.5 (power law global error model significance level: 5 × 10−4).
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fig3: The core transcriptional response of Candida albicans to weak organic acids (WOAs): (A−C) Pair-wise overlap analysis between individual lists of genes up- or down-regulated under the indicated conditions. Each heat map is color-coded based on Fisher exact test P values between the indicated pair of gene lists according to the color key next to each heat map. Only P values for significant overlaps (i.e., odds ratio > 1) are reported. (A) Data relative to lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid are from the present study. (B−C) Gene lists related to acetic acid treatment, iron depletion, heat shock, hyperosmotic stress, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, Congo red treatment, serum stimulation, and low pH were obtained from previously published work (Enjalbert et al. 2003; Bensen et al. 2004; Lan et al. 2004; Ramsdale et al. 2008; Bruno et al. 2010) and filtered based on a twofold change threshold. (D) Four-way Venn diagram representing the number of shared and unique genes identified as differentially expressed in each WOA treatment. The figure only reports genes significantly regulated compared to the untreated control (De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium [MRS]) at all four time points, but not in MRS pH 5.5 (power law global error model significance level: 5 × 10−4).

Mentions: To more systematically investigate the similarity between the gene expression profiles induced by the different WOAs at the different time points, we evaluated the degree of overlap between all lists of up- and down-regulated genes obtained in this study (Figure 3A and Figure S4A). By this analysis, we detected highly significant overlaps between different WOA responses, many of which shared >40% of genes in common and some of which as high as >80% (i.e., genes up-regulated by propionic or by butyric acid at T3 and T4). More precisely, genes up-regulated at any given time point in response to any given WOA displayed relatively high overlap with genes up-regulated at the same or at any other time point in response to the same or any other WOA (Figure 3A and Figure S4A). A similar picture was found for genes down-regulated by WOAs.


The transcriptional stress response of Candida albicans to weak organic acids.

Cottier F, Tan AS, Chen J, Lum J, Zolezzi F, Poidinger M, Pavelka N - G3 (Bethesda) (2015)

The core transcriptional response of Candida albicans to weak organic acids (WOAs): (A−C) Pair-wise overlap analysis between individual lists of genes up- or down-regulated under the indicated conditions. Each heat map is color-coded based on Fisher exact test P values between the indicated pair of gene lists according to the color key next to each heat map. Only P values for significant overlaps (i.e., odds ratio > 1) are reported. (A) Data relative to lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid are from the present study. (B−C) Gene lists related to acetic acid treatment, iron depletion, heat shock, hyperosmotic stress, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, Congo red treatment, serum stimulation, and low pH were obtained from previously published work (Enjalbert et al. 2003; Bensen et al. 2004; Lan et al. 2004; Ramsdale et al. 2008; Bruno et al. 2010) and filtered based on a twofold change threshold. (D) Four-way Venn diagram representing the number of shared and unique genes identified as differentially expressed in each WOA treatment. The figure only reports genes significantly regulated compared to the untreated control (De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium [MRS]) at all four time points, but not in MRS pH 5.5 (power law global error model significance level: 5 × 10−4).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390566&req=5

fig3: The core transcriptional response of Candida albicans to weak organic acids (WOAs): (A−C) Pair-wise overlap analysis between individual lists of genes up- or down-regulated under the indicated conditions. Each heat map is color-coded based on Fisher exact test P values between the indicated pair of gene lists according to the color key next to each heat map. Only P values for significant overlaps (i.e., odds ratio > 1) are reported. (A) Data relative to lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid are from the present study. (B−C) Gene lists related to acetic acid treatment, iron depletion, heat shock, hyperosmotic stress, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, Congo red treatment, serum stimulation, and low pH were obtained from previously published work (Enjalbert et al. 2003; Bensen et al. 2004; Lan et al. 2004; Ramsdale et al. 2008; Bruno et al. 2010) and filtered based on a twofold change threshold. (D) Four-way Venn diagram representing the number of shared and unique genes identified as differentially expressed in each WOA treatment. The figure only reports genes significantly regulated compared to the untreated control (De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium [MRS]) at all four time points, but not in MRS pH 5.5 (power law global error model significance level: 5 × 10−4).
Mentions: To more systematically investigate the similarity between the gene expression profiles induced by the different WOAs at the different time points, we evaluated the degree of overlap between all lists of up- and down-regulated genes obtained in this study (Figure 3A and Figure S4A). By this analysis, we detected highly significant overlaps between different WOA responses, many of which shared >40% of genes in common and some of which as high as >80% (i.e., genes up-regulated by propionic or by butyric acid at T3 and T4). More precisely, genes up-regulated at any given time point in response to any given WOA displayed relatively high overlap with genes up-regulated at the same or at any other time point in response to the same or any other WOA (Figure 3A and Figure S4A). A similar picture was found for genes down-regulated by WOAs.

Bottom Line: Genes commonly up-regulated by WOAs were enriched in several iron transporters, which was associated with an overall decrease in intracellular iron concentrations.Moreover, chronic exposure to any WOA lead to down-regulation of RNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis genes, which resulted in significant reduction of total RNA levels and of ribosomal RNA in particular.In conclusion, this study suggests that gastrointestinal microbiota might directly influence C. albicans physiology via production of WOAs, with possible implications of how this fungus interacts with its host in both health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138648, Singapore.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus