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Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

Hoyt JR, Cheng TL, Langwig KE, Hee MM, Frick WF, Kilpatrick AM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies.The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome.In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Second inhibition assay measuring the diameter of P. destructans colonies grown on a lawn of bacteria.Pseudogymnoascus destructans was plated with nine bacterial isolates at six different concentrations (highest to lowest, left to right). Lines denoted by the same letter did not differ significantly on the last day of the experiment. CHR and SPH are isolates in the genus Chryseobacterium and Sphingomonas that are not known to produce antifungal compounds. The Control is a sham inoculation of 30% glycerol stock. PF1-7 and PA6 are all isolates in the genus Pseudomonas.
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pone.0121329.g003: Second inhibition assay measuring the diameter of P. destructans colonies grown on a lawn of bacteria.Pseudogymnoascus destructans was plated with nine bacterial isolates at six different concentrations (highest to lowest, left to right). Lines denoted by the same letter did not differ significantly on the last day of the experiment. CHR and SPH are isolates in the genus Chryseobacterium and Sphingomonas that are not known to produce antifungal compounds. The Control is a sham inoculation of 30% glycerol stock. PF1-7 and PA6 are all isolates in the genus Pseudomonas.

Mentions: In the second inhibition experiment, P. destructans grew optimally in the absence of bacteria, and on media with low initial concentrations of the control bacteria (Fig. 3). By the end of the experiment, the size of P. destructans colonies differed between bacterial isolates and initial concentrations and the effect of bacterial isolate varied among initial concentrations (S3 and S6 Tables). At the highest initial concentration (106 cells/ml), all bacteria (including the two control bacteria) formed lawns and all reduced growth of P. destructans. As the starting concentration of the bacteria lawn decreased, fewer isolates significantly reduced the growth of P. destructans. At the three highest initial bacterial concentrations (106–104 cfu/ml), only isolates PF1, PF2, and PF5 completely suppressed P. destructans growth for the duration of the experiment (day 42; S6 Table). At the three lowest initial concentrations of the bacteria, where there were relatively few colonies, two Pseudomonas isolates, PF1 and PF2 performed significantly better than other isolates in reducing P. destructans growth and prevented P. destructans from growing for the full duration of the experiment (Fig. 3, S6 Table). In both experiments, isolates PF1 and PF2 produced the maximum reduction of mycelial growth across all concentrations, regardless of the way the isolates and P. destructans were co-cultured.


Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

Hoyt JR, Cheng TL, Langwig KE, Hee MM, Frick WF, Kilpatrick AM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Second inhibition assay measuring the diameter of P. destructans colonies grown on a lawn of bacteria.Pseudogymnoascus destructans was plated with nine bacterial isolates at six different concentrations (highest to lowest, left to right). Lines denoted by the same letter did not differ significantly on the last day of the experiment. CHR and SPH are isolates in the genus Chryseobacterium and Sphingomonas that are not known to produce antifungal compounds. The Control is a sham inoculation of 30% glycerol stock. PF1-7 and PA6 are all isolates in the genus Pseudomonas.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390377&req=5

pone.0121329.g003: Second inhibition assay measuring the diameter of P. destructans colonies grown on a lawn of bacteria.Pseudogymnoascus destructans was plated with nine bacterial isolates at six different concentrations (highest to lowest, left to right). Lines denoted by the same letter did not differ significantly on the last day of the experiment. CHR and SPH are isolates in the genus Chryseobacterium and Sphingomonas that are not known to produce antifungal compounds. The Control is a sham inoculation of 30% glycerol stock. PF1-7 and PA6 are all isolates in the genus Pseudomonas.
Mentions: In the second inhibition experiment, P. destructans grew optimally in the absence of bacteria, and on media with low initial concentrations of the control bacteria (Fig. 3). By the end of the experiment, the size of P. destructans colonies differed between bacterial isolates and initial concentrations and the effect of bacterial isolate varied among initial concentrations (S3 and S6 Tables). At the highest initial concentration (106 cells/ml), all bacteria (including the two control bacteria) formed lawns and all reduced growth of P. destructans. As the starting concentration of the bacteria lawn decreased, fewer isolates significantly reduced the growth of P. destructans. At the three highest initial bacterial concentrations (106–104 cfu/ml), only isolates PF1, PF2, and PF5 completely suppressed P. destructans growth for the duration of the experiment (day 42; S6 Table). At the three lowest initial concentrations of the bacteria, where there were relatively few colonies, two Pseudomonas isolates, PF1 and PF2 performed significantly better than other isolates in reducing P. destructans growth and prevented P. destructans from growing for the full duration of the experiment (Fig. 3, S6 Table). In both experiments, isolates PF1 and PF2 produced the maximum reduction of mycelial growth across all concentrations, regardless of the way the isolates and P. destructans were co-cultured.

Bottom Line: White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies.The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome.In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus