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Antioxidant and angiostatic effect of Spirulina platensis suspension in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

Ali EA, Barakat BM, Hassan R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner.Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group.The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology & Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested.

Results: We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group.

Conclusions: The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histopathological picture for ankle specimens from the experimental groups stained with Masson’s trichrome stain (A). Section in the normal group is showing thin synovial membrane (arrow) with fine greenish color collagen fibers in the subsynovial connective tissue (arrow heads). The normal group also showed the greenish matrix of the articular cartilage (C). Section in the AIA control group showed proliferation of the synovial membrane (arrow), with heavy mononuclear cell infiltration and markedly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) in the subsynovial connective tissue compared to normal. Section in the AIA control group showing greenish synovial pannus (SP) invading and destroying the underlying articular cartilage which shows markedly altered stainability as it is reddish in color. Section in the Indomethacin group is showing thin synovial membrane (arrow) with heavy mononuclear cell infiltration and markedly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) in the subsynovial connective tissue compared to normal. Section in indomethacin group showing moderately altered stainability of the articular cartilage compared to normal. Spirulina (200 mg/kg) treated rats showed heavy mononuclear cell infiltration (arrow), increased vascularity (V) and moderately thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) of the subsynovial connective tissue. Spirulina (200 mg/kg)-treated rats showed markedly altered stainability of the articular cartilage compared to the normal denoting poor quality collagen. Spirulina (400 mg/kg)-treated rats showed thin synovial membrane (arrow), with increased vascularity (V) but mild mononuclear cell infiltration and mildly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) of the subsynovial connective tissue. Spirulina (400 mg/kg)-treated rats showed moderately altered stainability of the articular cartilage (arrow head) compared to normal (Masson's Trichrome x200). (B) The area % in synovial membrane (top left panel) and the articular cartilage (bottom left panel). Data are presented as mean±SEM. *Compared to normal, #Compared to AIA control, @Compared to indomethacin, $Compared to Spirulina (200 mg/kg).
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pone.0121523.g004: Histopathological picture for ankle specimens from the experimental groups stained with Masson’s trichrome stain (A). Section in the normal group is showing thin synovial membrane (arrow) with fine greenish color collagen fibers in the subsynovial connective tissue (arrow heads). The normal group also showed the greenish matrix of the articular cartilage (C). Section in the AIA control group showed proliferation of the synovial membrane (arrow), with heavy mononuclear cell infiltration and markedly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) in the subsynovial connective tissue compared to normal. Section in the AIA control group showing greenish synovial pannus (SP) invading and destroying the underlying articular cartilage which shows markedly altered stainability as it is reddish in color. Section in the Indomethacin group is showing thin synovial membrane (arrow) with heavy mononuclear cell infiltration and markedly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) in the subsynovial connective tissue compared to normal. Section in indomethacin group showing moderately altered stainability of the articular cartilage compared to normal. Spirulina (200 mg/kg) treated rats showed heavy mononuclear cell infiltration (arrow), increased vascularity (V) and moderately thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) of the subsynovial connective tissue. Spirulina (200 mg/kg)-treated rats showed markedly altered stainability of the articular cartilage compared to the normal denoting poor quality collagen. Spirulina (400 mg/kg)-treated rats showed thin synovial membrane (arrow), with increased vascularity (V) but mild mononuclear cell infiltration and mildly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) of the subsynovial connective tissue. Spirulina (400 mg/kg)-treated rats showed moderately altered stainability of the articular cartilage (arrow head) compared to normal (Masson's Trichrome x200). (B) The area % in synovial membrane (top left panel) and the articular cartilage (bottom left panel). Data are presented as mean±SEM. *Compared to normal, #Compared to AIA control, @Compared to indomethacin, $Compared to Spirulina (200 mg/kg).

Mentions: Histopathologic examination for ankle sections stained with Masson’s trichrome demonstrated that AIA group showed high proliferation of synovial membrane accompanied by marked thickening of collagen fibers. Ankles from indomethacin-treated rats showed thin synovial membranes. Ankles from Spirulina-treated rats (200 mg/kg) showed moderately thickened collagen fibers (Fig 4a). The area % of the synovial membrane was greater whereas the area % for articular cartilage was smaller in AIA group compared to normal (Fig 4b). Spirulina (200 or 400 mg/kg) suppressed the area % of the synovial membrane compared to AIA control. Further, indomethacin and Spirulina (400 mg/kg) were able to ameliorate the area % for the articular cartilage.


Antioxidant and angiostatic effect of Spirulina platensis suspension in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

Ali EA, Barakat BM, Hassan R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Histopathological picture for ankle specimens from the experimental groups stained with Masson’s trichrome stain (A). Section in the normal group is showing thin synovial membrane (arrow) with fine greenish color collagen fibers in the subsynovial connective tissue (arrow heads). The normal group also showed the greenish matrix of the articular cartilage (C). Section in the AIA control group showed proliferation of the synovial membrane (arrow), with heavy mononuclear cell infiltration and markedly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) in the subsynovial connective tissue compared to normal. Section in the AIA control group showing greenish synovial pannus (SP) invading and destroying the underlying articular cartilage which shows markedly altered stainability as it is reddish in color. Section in the Indomethacin group is showing thin synovial membrane (arrow) with heavy mononuclear cell infiltration and markedly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) in the subsynovial connective tissue compared to normal. Section in indomethacin group showing moderately altered stainability of the articular cartilage compared to normal. Spirulina (200 mg/kg) treated rats showed heavy mononuclear cell infiltration (arrow), increased vascularity (V) and moderately thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) of the subsynovial connective tissue. Spirulina (200 mg/kg)-treated rats showed markedly altered stainability of the articular cartilage compared to the normal denoting poor quality collagen. Spirulina (400 mg/kg)-treated rats showed thin synovial membrane (arrow), with increased vascularity (V) but mild mononuclear cell infiltration and mildly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) of the subsynovial connective tissue. Spirulina (400 mg/kg)-treated rats showed moderately altered stainability of the articular cartilage (arrow head) compared to normal (Masson's Trichrome x200). (B) The area % in synovial membrane (top left panel) and the articular cartilage (bottom left panel). Data are presented as mean±SEM. *Compared to normal, #Compared to AIA control, @Compared to indomethacin, $Compared to Spirulina (200 mg/kg).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390336&req=5

pone.0121523.g004: Histopathological picture for ankle specimens from the experimental groups stained with Masson’s trichrome stain (A). Section in the normal group is showing thin synovial membrane (arrow) with fine greenish color collagen fibers in the subsynovial connective tissue (arrow heads). The normal group also showed the greenish matrix of the articular cartilage (C). Section in the AIA control group showed proliferation of the synovial membrane (arrow), with heavy mononuclear cell infiltration and markedly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) in the subsynovial connective tissue compared to normal. Section in the AIA control group showing greenish synovial pannus (SP) invading and destroying the underlying articular cartilage which shows markedly altered stainability as it is reddish in color. Section in the Indomethacin group is showing thin synovial membrane (arrow) with heavy mononuclear cell infiltration and markedly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) in the subsynovial connective tissue compared to normal. Section in indomethacin group showing moderately altered stainability of the articular cartilage compared to normal. Spirulina (200 mg/kg) treated rats showed heavy mononuclear cell infiltration (arrow), increased vascularity (V) and moderately thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) of the subsynovial connective tissue. Spirulina (200 mg/kg)-treated rats showed markedly altered stainability of the articular cartilage compared to the normal denoting poor quality collagen. Spirulina (400 mg/kg)-treated rats showed thin synovial membrane (arrow), with increased vascularity (V) but mild mononuclear cell infiltration and mildly thickened collagen fibers (arrow heads) of the subsynovial connective tissue. Spirulina (400 mg/kg)-treated rats showed moderately altered stainability of the articular cartilage (arrow head) compared to normal (Masson's Trichrome x200). (B) The area % in synovial membrane (top left panel) and the articular cartilage (bottom left panel). Data are presented as mean±SEM. *Compared to normal, #Compared to AIA control, @Compared to indomethacin, $Compared to Spirulina (200 mg/kg).
Mentions: Histopathologic examination for ankle sections stained with Masson’s trichrome demonstrated that AIA group showed high proliferation of synovial membrane accompanied by marked thickening of collagen fibers. Ankles from indomethacin-treated rats showed thin synovial membranes. Ankles from Spirulina-treated rats (200 mg/kg) showed moderately thickened collagen fibers (Fig 4a). The area % of the synovial membrane was greater whereas the area % for articular cartilage was smaller in AIA group compared to normal (Fig 4b). Spirulina (200 or 400 mg/kg) suppressed the area % of the synovial membrane compared to AIA control. Further, indomethacin and Spirulina (400 mg/kg) were able to ameliorate the area % for the articular cartilage.

Bottom Line: Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner.Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group.The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology & Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested.

Results: We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group.

Conclusions: The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus