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Effect of resource spatial correlation and hunter-fisher-gatherer mobility on social cooperation in Tierra del Fuego.

Santos JI, Pereda M, Zurro D, Álvarez M, Caro J, Galán JM, Briz i Godino I - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital.The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation.We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INSISOC, Universidad de Burgos, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Edif. "La Milanera", Burgos, Spain.

ABSTRACT
This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile). According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

No MeSH data available.


Average amount of social capital for cooperators and defectors.Average amount of social capital for cooperators SCC and defectors SCD over a complete simulation run for two values of Pbw, and “random-walk” and “Lévy-flight8” movements. The spatial distributions of beached whales is uniform and θ = 10–1.5.
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pone.0121888.g011: Average amount of social capital for cooperators and defectors.Average amount of social capital for cooperators SCC and defectors SCD over a complete simulation run for two values of Pbw, and “random-walk” and “Lévy-flight8” movements. The spatial distributions of beached whales is uniform and θ = 10–1.5.

Mentions: However, the increase in the visibility of beached whales promotes cooperation to the detriment of defection. Fig 11 shows the average amount of social capital SC over a complete simulation run for defectors and cooperators, and is helpful for understanding this effect. Now, high values of vision v = {30,40}increase the probability of finding a beached whale for all people, as well as the chances that two or more agents might share the resource. Consequently, the average meat of defectors and cooperators converge as vision approaches the value of signal-range 50 (see Fig 10) because most agents share the food either intentionally (cooperators) or unintentionally (defectors). Simultaneously, whenever there is an aggregation, cooperators get social capital, as we can see in Fig 11, which results in higher fitness than defectors, who get lower social capital because they have lower reputations.


Effect of resource spatial correlation and hunter-fisher-gatherer mobility on social cooperation in Tierra del Fuego.

Santos JI, Pereda M, Zurro D, Álvarez M, Caro J, Galán JM, Briz i Godino I - PLoS ONE (2015)

Average amount of social capital for cooperators and defectors.Average amount of social capital for cooperators SCC and defectors SCD over a complete simulation run for two values of Pbw, and “random-walk” and “Lévy-flight8” movements. The spatial distributions of beached whales is uniform and θ = 10–1.5.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390331&req=5

pone.0121888.g011: Average amount of social capital for cooperators and defectors.Average amount of social capital for cooperators SCC and defectors SCD over a complete simulation run for two values of Pbw, and “random-walk” and “Lévy-flight8” movements. The spatial distributions of beached whales is uniform and θ = 10–1.5.
Mentions: However, the increase in the visibility of beached whales promotes cooperation to the detriment of defection. Fig 11 shows the average amount of social capital SC over a complete simulation run for defectors and cooperators, and is helpful for understanding this effect. Now, high values of vision v = {30,40}increase the probability of finding a beached whale for all people, as well as the chances that two or more agents might share the resource. Consequently, the average meat of defectors and cooperators converge as vision approaches the value of signal-range 50 (see Fig 10) because most agents share the food either intentionally (cooperators) or unintentionally (defectors). Simultaneously, whenever there is an aggregation, cooperators get social capital, as we can see in Fig 11, which results in higher fitness than defectors, who get lower social capital because they have lower reputations.

Bottom Line: According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital.The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation.We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INSISOC, Universidad de Burgos, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Edif. "La Milanera", Burgos, Spain.

ABSTRACT
This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile). According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

No MeSH data available.