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Salinity regulation of the interaction of halovirus SNJ1 with its host and alteration of the halovirus replication strategy to adapt to the variable ecosystem.

Mei Y, He C, Huang Y, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Chen X, Shen P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, until now, the systematic studies on the halovirus ecology and the effects of salt concentration on virus-host systems are lacking.Our results also demonstrated that cells incubated at a high salt concentration prior to infection increased the ability of the virus to adsorb and lyse its host cells; therefore, the physiological status of host cells also affected the virus-host interaction.In conclusion, SNJ1 acted as a predator, lysing host cells and releasing progeny viruses in hypersaline environments; in low salt environments, viruses lysogenized host cells to escape the damage from low salinity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

ABSTRACT
Halovirus is a major force that affects the evolution of extreme halophiles and the biogeochemistry of hypersaline environments. However, until now, the systematic studies on the halovirus ecology and the effects of salt concentration on virus-host systems are lacking. To provide more valuable information for understanding ecological strategies of a virus-host system in the hypersaline ecosystem, we studied the interaction between halovirus SNJ1 and its host Natrinema sp.J7-2 under various NaCl concentrations. We found that the adsorption rate and lytic rate increased with salt concentration, demonstrating that a higher salt concentration promoted viral adsorption and proliferation. Contrary to the lytic rate, the lysogenic rate decreased as the salt concentration increased. Our results also demonstrated that cells incubated at a high salt concentration prior to infection increased the ability of the virus to adsorb and lyse its host cells; therefore, the physiological status of host cells also affected the virus-host interaction. In conclusion, SNJ1 acted as a predator, lysing host cells and releasing progeny viruses in hypersaline environments; in low salt environments, viruses lysogenized host cells to escape the damage from low salinity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Single-step growth curves of halovirus SNJ1 incubated in media with differing salinity.(A) cells incubated in 18% medium; (B) cells incubated in 25% medium; (C) cells incubated in 30% medium. ●, extracellular and mature intracellular phage; ○, extracellular phage and infective centers.
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pone.0123874.g004: Single-step growth curves of halovirus SNJ1 incubated in media with differing salinity.(A) cells incubated in 18% medium; (B) cells incubated in 25% medium; (C) cells incubated in 30% medium. ●, extracellular and mature intracellular phage; ○, extracellular phage and infective centers.

Mentions: In the single-cycle growth experiments using an MOI of 50, the number of virus progeny and the latent period varied when the infected Natrinema sp. J7-2 cells were incubated in media containing different NaCl concentrations (Fig 4). In the 18% NaCl case, the eclipse period was 5 h, and the latent period was 6 h (Fig 4A). In the 25% NaCl case, the eclipse period was 3 h, and the latent period was 4 h (Fig 4B). In the 30% NaCl case, the eclipse period was 4 h, and the latent period was 5 h (Fig 4C). These results indicated that the eclipse period and latent period of the infected cells incubated in the 25% NaCl medium were the shortest, followed by infected cells incubated in the 30% NaCl medium, and then the infected cells in the 18% NaCl medium. Furthermore, there was a difference in the burst size. In the 25% NaCl medium, the burst size was the largest, with 100–150 viruses per cell. Those cells incubated in the 30% NaCl solution had 40–70 viruses per cell, while there were 20–50 viruses per cell in the 18% NaCl medium. Earlier, we found SNJ1 was able to form visible plaques with a diameter approximately 2 mm at 48-h p.i. in soft agar with the 25% NaCl medium, while in the top agar with the 18% and 30% NaCl media, the plaques were smaller and delayed until 72-h p.i. The single-step growth curves indicated that these phenomena are ascribed to the differences in the burst size and the latent period.


Salinity regulation of the interaction of halovirus SNJ1 with its host and alteration of the halovirus replication strategy to adapt to the variable ecosystem.

Mei Y, He C, Huang Y, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Chen X, Shen P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Single-step growth curves of halovirus SNJ1 incubated in media with differing salinity.(A) cells incubated in 18% medium; (B) cells incubated in 25% medium; (C) cells incubated in 30% medium. ●, extracellular and mature intracellular phage; ○, extracellular phage and infective centers.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390326&req=5

pone.0123874.g004: Single-step growth curves of halovirus SNJ1 incubated in media with differing salinity.(A) cells incubated in 18% medium; (B) cells incubated in 25% medium; (C) cells incubated in 30% medium. ●, extracellular and mature intracellular phage; ○, extracellular phage and infective centers.
Mentions: In the single-cycle growth experiments using an MOI of 50, the number of virus progeny and the latent period varied when the infected Natrinema sp. J7-2 cells were incubated in media containing different NaCl concentrations (Fig 4). In the 18% NaCl case, the eclipse period was 5 h, and the latent period was 6 h (Fig 4A). In the 25% NaCl case, the eclipse period was 3 h, and the latent period was 4 h (Fig 4B). In the 30% NaCl case, the eclipse period was 4 h, and the latent period was 5 h (Fig 4C). These results indicated that the eclipse period and latent period of the infected cells incubated in the 25% NaCl medium were the shortest, followed by infected cells incubated in the 30% NaCl medium, and then the infected cells in the 18% NaCl medium. Furthermore, there was a difference in the burst size. In the 25% NaCl medium, the burst size was the largest, with 100–150 viruses per cell. Those cells incubated in the 30% NaCl solution had 40–70 viruses per cell, while there were 20–50 viruses per cell in the 18% NaCl medium. Earlier, we found SNJ1 was able to form visible plaques with a diameter approximately 2 mm at 48-h p.i. in soft agar with the 25% NaCl medium, while in the top agar with the 18% and 30% NaCl media, the plaques were smaller and delayed until 72-h p.i. The single-step growth curves indicated that these phenomena are ascribed to the differences in the burst size and the latent period.

Bottom Line: However, until now, the systematic studies on the halovirus ecology and the effects of salt concentration on virus-host systems are lacking.Our results also demonstrated that cells incubated at a high salt concentration prior to infection increased the ability of the virus to adsorb and lyse its host cells; therefore, the physiological status of host cells also affected the virus-host interaction.In conclusion, SNJ1 acted as a predator, lysing host cells and releasing progeny viruses in hypersaline environments; in low salt environments, viruses lysogenized host cells to escape the damage from low salinity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

ABSTRACT
Halovirus is a major force that affects the evolution of extreme halophiles and the biogeochemistry of hypersaline environments. However, until now, the systematic studies on the halovirus ecology and the effects of salt concentration on virus-host systems are lacking. To provide more valuable information for understanding ecological strategies of a virus-host system in the hypersaline ecosystem, we studied the interaction between halovirus SNJ1 and its host Natrinema sp.J7-2 under various NaCl concentrations. We found that the adsorption rate and lytic rate increased with salt concentration, demonstrating that a higher salt concentration promoted viral adsorption and proliferation. Contrary to the lytic rate, the lysogenic rate decreased as the salt concentration increased. Our results also demonstrated that cells incubated at a high salt concentration prior to infection increased the ability of the virus to adsorb and lyse its host cells; therefore, the physiological status of host cells also affected the virus-host interaction. In conclusion, SNJ1 acted as a predator, lysing host cells and releasing progeny viruses in hypersaline environments; in low salt environments, viruses lysogenized host cells to escape the damage from low salinity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus