Limits...
Salinity regulation of the interaction of halovirus SNJ1 with its host and alteration of the halovirus replication strategy to adapt to the variable ecosystem.

Mei Y, He C, Huang Y, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Chen X, Shen P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, until now, the systematic studies on the halovirus ecology and the effects of salt concentration on virus-host systems are lacking.Our results also demonstrated that cells incubated at a high salt concentration prior to infection increased the ability of the virus to adsorb and lyse its host cells; therefore, the physiological status of host cells also affected the virus-host interaction.In conclusion, SNJ1 acted as a predator, lysing host cells and releasing progeny viruses in hypersaline environments; in low salt environments, viruses lysogenized host cells to escape the damage from low salinity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

ABSTRACT
Halovirus is a major force that affects the evolution of extreme halophiles and the biogeochemistry of hypersaline environments. However, until now, the systematic studies on the halovirus ecology and the effects of salt concentration on virus-host systems are lacking. To provide more valuable information for understanding ecological strategies of a virus-host system in the hypersaline ecosystem, we studied the interaction between halovirus SNJ1 and its host Natrinema sp.J7-2 under various NaCl concentrations. We found that the adsorption rate and lytic rate increased with salt concentration, demonstrating that a higher salt concentration promoted viral adsorption and proliferation. Contrary to the lytic rate, the lysogenic rate decreased as the salt concentration increased. Our results also demonstrated that cells incubated at a high salt concentration prior to infection increased the ability of the virus to adsorb and lyse its host cells; therefore, the physiological status of host cells also affected the virus-host interaction. In conclusion, SNJ1 acted as a predator, lysing host cells and releasing progeny viruses in hypersaline environments; in low salt environments, viruses lysogenized host cells to escape the damage from low salinity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Adsorption efficiency of SNJ1 under different salt concentrations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390326&req=5

pone.0123874.g002: Adsorption efficiency of SNJ1 under different salt concentrations.

Mentions: For all host cells, regardless of being incubated in 18% NaCl, 25% NaCl, or 30% NaCl prior to be infected, the adsorption efficiency was affected by salinity and increased with salt concentration. This result showed that the ionic strength of the adsorption process altered the adsorption efficiency. When the salinity of adsorption was identical, the adsorption efficiency of cells incubated in 30% NaCl was greater than those incubated in 25% and 18% NaCl (Fig 2), which indicated that the physiological characteristics of cells prior to being infected also affected the adsorption rate. Specifically, Fig 2 shows that there was a large variation in the adsorption rate, ranging from 0.1% to 77.6%. Cells incubated in 30% medium were most susceptible to SNJ1, with the adsorption rates ranging from 11.3% to 77.6%. Cells inoculated in 18% medium were the least susceptible, with adsorption efficiency ranging from 0.1% to 10.3%. Fig 3 displays the thin section electronic micrographs of Natrinema sp. J7-2 incubated in 18%, 25%, and 30% NaCl. All the cells developed central light areas, which occupied a an increasing fraction of the total cell volume with increasing salinity. Conversely, the cytoplasm gradually decreased with increasing salinity, and the composite structure of cell wall and the periplasmic space also attenuated (Fig 3A, 3B and 3C).These findings illustrate that NaCl acts through two pathways: one is changing the ionic strength of adsorption, and the other is altering the physiological status of the host cells.


Salinity regulation of the interaction of halovirus SNJ1 with its host and alteration of the halovirus replication strategy to adapt to the variable ecosystem.

Mei Y, He C, Huang Y, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Chen X, Shen P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Adsorption efficiency of SNJ1 under different salt concentrations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390326&req=5

pone.0123874.g002: Adsorption efficiency of SNJ1 under different salt concentrations.
Mentions: For all host cells, regardless of being incubated in 18% NaCl, 25% NaCl, or 30% NaCl prior to be infected, the adsorption efficiency was affected by salinity and increased with salt concentration. This result showed that the ionic strength of the adsorption process altered the adsorption efficiency. When the salinity of adsorption was identical, the adsorption efficiency of cells incubated in 30% NaCl was greater than those incubated in 25% and 18% NaCl (Fig 2), which indicated that the physiological characteristics of cells prior to being infected also affected the adsorption rate. Specifically, Fig 2 shows that there was a large variation in the adsorption rate, ranging from 0.1% to 77.6%. Cells incubated in 30% medium were most susceptible to SNJ1, with the adsorption rates ranging from 11.3% to 77.6%. Cells inoculated in 18% medium were the least susceptible, with adsorption efficiency ranging from 0.1% to 10.3%. Fig 3 displays the thin section electronic micrographs of Natrinema sp. J7-2 incubated in 18%, 25%, and 30% NaCl. All the cells developed central light areas, which occupied a an increasing fraction of the total cell volume with increasing salinity. Conversely, the cytoplasm gradually decreased with increasing salinity, and the composite structure of cell wall and the periplasmic space also attenuated (Fig 3A, 3B and 3C).These findings illustrate that NaCl acts through two pathways: one is changing the ionic strength of adsorption, and the other is altering the physiological status of the host cells.

Bottom Line: However, until now, the systematic studies on the halovirus ecology and the effects of salt concentration on virus-host systems are lacking.Our results also demonstrated that cells incubated at a high salt concentration prior to infection increased the ability of the virus to adsorb and lyse its host cells; therefore, the physiological status of host cells also affected the virus-host interaction.In conclusion, SNJ1 acted as a predator, lysing host cells and releasing progeny viruses in hypersaline environments; in low salt environments, viruses lysogenized host cells to escape the damage from low salinity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

ABSTRACT
Halovirus is a major force that affects the evolution of extreme halophiles and the biogeochemistry of hypersaline environments. However, until now, the systematic studies on the halovirus ecology and the effects of salt concentration on virus-host systems are lacking. To provide more valuable information for understanding ecological strategies of a virus-host system in the hypersaline ecosystem, we studied the interaction between halovirus SNJ1 and its host Natrinema sp.J7-2 under various NaCl concentrations. We found that the adsorption rate and lytic rate increased with salt concentration, demonstrating that a higher salt concentration promoted viral adsorption and proliferation. Contrary to the lytic rate, the lysogenic rate decreased as the salt concentration increased. Our results also demonstrated that cells incubated at a high salt concentration prior to infection increased the ability of the virus to adsorb and lyse its host cells; therefore, the physiological status of host cells also affected the virus-host interaction. In conclusion, SNJ1 acted as a predator, lysing host cells and releasing progeny viruses in hypersaline environments; in low salt environments, viruses lysogenized host cells to escape the damage from low salinity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus