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Singing from the grave: DNA from a 180 year old type specimen confirms the identity of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens).

Price BW, Henry CS, Hall AC, Mochizuki A, Duelli P, Brooks SJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Sequencing diagnostic molecular markers from type material enables accurate species designation, especially where modern taxonomic hypotheses confirm morphologically cryptic species complexes.One such example is Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), which belongs to a complex of about 20 cryptic species, most of which can only be reliably distinguished by their pre-mating courtship songs or by DNA analysis.Archival DNA extraction and sequencing from the 180 year old lectotype specimen, combined with Bayesian and Likelihood based phylogenetic analyses of modern specimens from the entire complex, were used to establish unambiguously the true identity of Chrysoperla carnea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life Sciences Department, Natural History Museum, London, England.

ABSTRACT
Historically serving as repositories for morphologically-based taxonomic research, natural history collections are now increasingly being targeted in studies utilizing DNA data. The development of advanced molecular techniques has facilitated extraction of useable DNA from old specimens, including type material. Sequencing diagnostic molecular markers from type material enables accurate species designation, especially where modern taxonomic hypotheses confirm morphologically cryptic species complexes. One such example is Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), which belongs to a complex of about 20 cryptic species, most of which can only be reliably distinguished by their pre-mating courtship songs or by DNA analysis. The subtle morphological variation in the group has led to disagreement over the previous designation of the lectotype for C. carnea, an issue that has been further compounded because Chrysoperla carnea is a highly valued biological control agent in arable crops. Archival DNA extraction and sequencing from the 180 year old lectotype specimen, combined with Bayesian and Likelihood based phylogenetic analyses of modern specimens from the entire complex, were used to establish unambiguously the true identity of Chrysoperla carnea.

No MeSH data available.


Lectotype of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens).Mounted female specimen (voucher: BMNH(E) 1239048) is shown before dissection and abdomen extraction.
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pone.0121127.g001: Lectotype of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens).Mounted female specimen (voucher: BMNH(E) 1239048) is shown before dissection and abdomen extraction.

Mentions: Chrysoperla carnea was originally described from a short type series collected by James Francis Stephens in London and Scotland in the early 19th century [17]. These specimens are now deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. A female lectotype for C. carnea was designated by Leraut [18] from this series (Fig. 1), as well as a lectotype for C. affinis, also described originally by Stephens [17]. Analysis of living British specimens in the C. carnea-group by Henry et al. [19, 20] revealed the presence of three species, all of which co-occur in the London area and can be distinguished on the basis of their unique courtship songs. One of these, C. lucasina (Lacroix, 1912), can be diagnosed morphologically by the presence of a prominent dark brown lateral stripe on the pleural membrane at the base of the abdomen. This marking is absent in the other two species. The remaining two species (C. pallida Henry et al., 2002 and C. carnea) can be reliably distinguished from each other by clear differences in their courtship songs [20] and mitochondrial DNA profiles [21]. The only morphological character that will consistently distinguish specimens of C. carnea from C. pallida is the shape of the genital lip on sternite 8+9 of males. Unfortunately, the lectotype of C. carnea is a female. Other morphological characters that are not sex-related, including tarsal claw morphology, colour and extent of head markings, and colouration of abdominal sternal setae, can be used to assign some specimens to the correct species, but there is considerable overlap and mixing of character states.


Singing from the grave: DNA from a 180 year old type specimen confirms the identity of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens).

Price BW, Henry CS, Hall AC, Mochizuki A, Duelli P, Brooks SJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Lectotype of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens).Mounted female specimen (voucher: BMNH(E) 1239048) is shown before dissection and abdomen extraction.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390323&req=5

pone.0121127.g001: Lectotype of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens).Mounted female specimen (voucher: BMNH(E) 1239048) is shown before dissection and abdomen extraction.
Mentions: Chrysoperla carnea was originally described from a short type series collected by James Francis Stephens in London and Scotland in the early 19th century [17]. These specimens are now deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. A female lectotype for C. carnea was designated by Leraut [18] from this series (Fig. 1), as well as a lectotype for C. affinis, also described originally by Stephens [17]. Analysis of living British specimens in the C. carnea-group by Henry et al. [19, 20] revealed the presence of three species, all of which co-occur in the London area and can be distinguished on the basis of their unique courtship songs. One of these, C. lucasina (Lacroix, 1912), can be diagnosed morphologically by the presence of a prominent dark brown lateral stripe on the pleural membrane at the base of the abdomen. This marking is absent in the other two species. The remaining two species (C. pallida Henry et al., 2002 and C. carnea) can be reliably distinguished from each other by clear differences in their courtship songs [20] and mitochondrial DNA profiles [21]. The only morphological character that will consistently distinguish specimens of C. carnea from C. pallida is the shape of the genital lip on sternite 8+9 of males. Unfortunately, the lectotype of C. carnea is a female. Other morphological characters that are not sex-related, including tarsal claw morphology, colour and extent of head markings, and colouration of abdominal sternal setae, can be used to assign some specimens to the correct species, but there is considerable overlap and mixing of character states.

Bottom Line: Sequencing diagnostic molecular markers from type material enables accurate species designation, especially where modern taxonomic hypotheses confirm morphologically cryptic species complexes.One such example is Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), which belongs to a complex of about 20 cryptic species, most of which can only be reliably distinguished by their pre-mating courtship songs or by DNA analysis.Archival DNA extraction and sequencing from the 180 year old lectotype specimen, combined with Bayesian and Likelihood based phylogenetic analyses of modern specimens from the entire complex, were used to establish unambiguously the true identity of Chrysoperla carnea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life Sciences Department, Natural History Museum, London, England.

ABSTRACT
Historically serving as repositories for morphologically-based taxonomic research, natural history collections are now increasingly being targeted in studies utilizing DNA data. The development of advanced molecular techniques has facilitated extraction of useable DNA from old specimens, including type material. Sequencing diagnostic molecular markers from type material enables accurate species designation, especially where modern taxonomic hypotheses confirm morphologically cryptic species complexes. One such example is Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), which belongs to a complex of about 20 cryptic species, most of which can only be reliably distinguished by their pre-mating courtship songs or by DNA analysis. The subtle morphological variation in the group has led to disagreement over the previous designation of the lectotype for C. carnea, an issue that has been further compounded because Chrysoperla carnea is a highly valued biological control agent in arable crops. Archival DNA extraction and sequencing from the 180 year old lectotype specimen, combined with Bayesian and Likelihood based phylogenetic analyses of modern specimens from the entire complex, were used to establish unambiguously the true identity of Chrysoperla carnea.

No MeSH data available.