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Parasite prevalence corresponds to host life history in a diverse assemblage of afrotropical birds and haemosporidian parasites.

Lutz HL, Hochachka WM, Engel JI, Bell JA, Tkach VV, Bates JM, Hackett SJ, Weckstein JD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that host life history traits were significantly associated with parasitism rates by all three parasite genera.Parasite diversity was also exceptionally high, with 248 parasite cytochrome b lineages identified from 152 host species.A large proportion of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasite DNA sequences identified in this study represent new, previously undocumented lineages (n = 201; 81% of total identified) based on BLAST queries against the avian malaria database, MalAvi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America; Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America; Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America; Department of Zoology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Avian host life history traits have been hypothesized to predict rates of infection by haemosporidian parasites. Using molecular techniques, we tested this hypothesis for parasites from three haemosporidian genera (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon) collected from a diverse sampling of birds in northern Malawi. We found that host life history traits were significantly associated with parasitism rates by all three parasite genera. Nest type and nest location predicted infection probability for all three parasite genera, whereas flocking behavior is an important predictor of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infection and habitat is an important predictor of Leucocytozoon infection. Parasite prevalence was 79.1% across all individuals sampled, higher than that reported for comparable studies from any other region of the world. Parasite diversity was also exceptionally high, with 248 parasite cytochrome b lineages identified from 152 host species. A large proportion of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasite DNA sequences identified in this study represent new, previously undocumented lineages (n = 201; 81% of total identified) based on BLAST queries against the avian malaria database, MalAvi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of sampling locations in northern Malawi.Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve, red; Nyika National Park, orange. Image credit: USGS National Map Viewer.
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pone.0121254.g001: Map of sampling locations in northern Malawi.Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve, red; Nyika National Park, orange. Image credit: USGS National Map Viewer.

Mentions: Sampling was carried out from October—November of 2009 in Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve and Nyika National Park in Malawi (Fig. 1) as part of a larger project to assess parasite and pathogen diversity in African birds. Birds were sampled from a variety of habitats at each field site [49] to thoroughly assess host and parasite diversity (Table 1). For statistical analyses, these habitats were grouped into five broad classes: aquatic, evergreen forest, forest edge, grassland/marsh, and riparian forest/woodland. Host voucher specimens were collected and deposited at the Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, IL) and the Museums of Malawi (Blantyre, Malawi). The Malawi Department of Forestry (License No. 3/12/2007/1, granted 10 July 2009, valid 10 July 2009–10 July 2010) and the Department of National Parks and Wildlife (Ref. No. NPW/2/1/12, granted 6 October 2009, valid October-November 2009) provided permits for collecting vertebrate specimens in Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve (Base camp: 11°08.03’S, 33°39.31’E; elevation 1092m) and Nyika National Park (Base camp: 10°73.33’S, 33°96.67’E; elevation 2233m). Birds were euthanized via thoracic compression following the euthanization guidelines published in the American Ornithologists' Union's "Guidelines to the Use of Wild Birds in Research." (http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/guide/). The protocols described in this document were approved for use by the Field Museum’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. We did not collect specimens of endangered or threatened species. Avian specimens are being used in ongoing morphological studies of geographic variation in African birds.


Parasite prevalence corresponds to host life history in a diverse assemblage of afrotropical birds and haemosporidian parasites.

Lutz HL, Hochachka WM, Engel JI, Bell JA, Tkach VV, Bates JM, Hackett SJ, Weckstein JD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Map of sampling locations in northern Malawi.Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve, red; Nyika National Park, orange. Image credit: USGS National Map Viewer.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390322&req=5

pone.0121254.g001: Map of sampling locations in northern Malawi.Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve, red; Nyika National Park, orange. Image credit: USGS National Map Viewer.
Mentions: Sampling was carried out from October—November of 2009 in Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve and Nyika National Park in Malawi (Fig. 1) as part of a larger project to assess parasite and pathogen diversity in African birds. Birds were sampled from a variety of habitats at each field site [49] to thoroughly assess host and parasite diversity (Table 1). For statistical analyses, these habitats were grouped into five broad classes: aquatic, evergreen forest, forest edge, grassland/marsh, and riparian forest/woodland. Host voucher specimens were collected and deposited at the Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, IL) and the Museums of Malawi (Blantyre, Malawi). The Malawi Department of Forestry (License No. 3/12/2007/1, granted 10 July 2009, valid 10 July 2009–10 July 2010) and the Department of National Parks and Wildlife (Ref. No. NPW/2/1/12, granted 6 October 2009, valid October-November 2009) provided permits for collecting vertebrate specimens in Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve (Base camp: 11°08.03’S, 33°39.31’E; elevation 1092m) and Nyika National Park (Base camp: 10°73.33’S, 33°96.67’E; elevation 2233m). Birds were euthanized via thoracic compression following the euthanization guidelines published in the American Ornithologists' Union's "Guidelines to the Use of Wild Birds in Research." (http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/guide/). The protocols described in this document were approved for use by the Field Museum’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. We did not collect specimens of endangered or threatened species. Avian specimens are being used in ongoing morphological studies of geographic variation in African birds.

Bottom Line: We found that host life history traits were significantly associated with parasitism rates by all three parasite genera.Parasite diversity was also exceptionally high, with 248 parasite cytochrome b lineages identified from 152 host species.A large proportion of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasite DNA sequences identified in this study represent new, previously undocumented lineages (n = 201; 81% of total identified) based on BLAST queries against the avian malaria database, MalAvi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America; Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America; Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America; Department of Zoology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Avian host life history traits have been hypothesized to predict rates of infection by haemosporidian parasites. Using molecular techniques, we tested this hypothesis for parasites from three haemosporidian genera (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon) collected from a diverse sampling of birds in northern Malawi. We found that host life history traits were significantly associated with parasitism rates by all three parasite genera. Nest type and nest location predicted infection probability for all three parasite genera, whereas flocking behavior is an important predictor of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infection and habitat is an important predictor of Leucocytozoon infection. Parasite prevalence was 79.1% across all individuals sampled, higher than that reported for comparable studies from any other region of the world. Parasite diversity was also exceptionally high, with 248 parasite cytochrome b lineages identified from 152 host species. A large proportion of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasite DNA sequences identified in this study represent new, previously undocumented lineages (n = 201; 81% of total identified) based on BLAST queries against the avian malaria database, MalAvi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus