Limits...
Reduced gaze following and attention to heads when viewing a "live" social scene.

Gregory NJ, Lόpez B, Graham G, Marshman P, Bate S, Kargas N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Results demonstrated that the social context in which the stimulus was viewed significantly influenced viewing behaviour.Specifically, participants in the social conditions allocated less visual attention towards the heads of the actors in the scene and followed their gaze less than those in the free-viewing group.These findings suggest that by underestimating the impact of social context in social attention, researchers risk coming to inaccurate conclusions about how we attend to others in the real world.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Hampshire, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Social stimuli are known to both attract and direct our attention, but most research on social attention has been conducted in highly controlled laboratory settings lacking in social context. This study examined the role of social context on viewing behaviour of participants whilst they watched a dynamic social scene, under three different conditions. In two social groups, participants believed they were watching a live webcam of other participants. The socially-engaged group believed they would later complete a group task with the people in the video, whilst the non-engaged group believed they would not meet the people in the scene. In a third condition, participants simply free-viewed the same video with the knowledge that it was pre-recorded, with no suggestion of a later interaction. Results demonstrated that the social context in which the stimulus was viewed significantly influenced viewing behaviour. Specifically, participants in the social conditions allocated less visual attention towards the heads of the actors in the scene and followed their gaze less than those in the free-viewing group. These findings suggest that by underestimating the impact of social context in social attention, researchers risk coming to inaccurate conclusions about how we attend to others in the real world.

No MeSH data available.


Screen shots of the five gaze shifts occurring in the video.The individuals who acted in the video scene presented in this manuscript have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish images taken from this video.
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pone.0121792.g001: Screen shots of the five gaze shifts occurring in the video.The individuals who acted in the video scene presented in this manuscript have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish images taken from this video.

Mentions: The video stimulus was filmed in a seminar room at the University of Portsmouth using stationary digital video camera at a rate of 30 frames per second at a size of 720 x 400 pixels. The audio track was removed from the edited video. The video was initially prepared using Adobe Premier 9.0 and the quality was deliberately degraded to give the appearance of a live webcam stream. In order to create the experimental programme, the video was converted to an. xvd file using SR Research’s Experiment Builder software. The first frame of the video showed a female actor sitting on a sofa in a waiting room scenario whilst interacting with her mobile phone. To the left of her, a bookcase was visible and to the right of her was an empty space on the sofa. Further to the right, an open door was partially visible. Two posters were visible on the wall behind the chairs. After approximately 10 seconds, a second female actor entered the room and sat next to the first actor after extending a short greeting. The actors remained seated throughout the video, which lasted for two minutes, either interacting with their mobile phone or reading a magazine. On five occasions during the video, a gaze shift (head turn and eye gaze together) towards an object or event in the room was performed by one of the actors. The gaze shifts always began before the target of the shift was apparent. In three shifts, the actors looked towards the open door as if they heard the approach of another person. In another shift, the actor looked towards the bookcase. In a further shift, the actor looked towards an out of shot actor as if they had attracted their attention by moving suddenly. A period of between 1.8 and 3.2 seconds elapsed before the target of the shift became apparent. In the case of the shifts towards the door, the target event was someone entering the room, with just their hand entering the shot for a moment as they walked through the door. In the case of the shift towards the off-screen actor, the target event was a magazine being turned by that actor which briefly entered the shot on one side of the screen. In the case of the bookshelf shift, the target event was slightly different to the others in that the actor reached out and picked up a magazine which had attracted her attention. After approximately 1.5 minutes into the video, one actor asked the other the time. Although this technically involved gaze shifts from both actors, it was deemed to be so qualitatively different to the other shifts (which involved a gaze shift of a solitary actor towards an unknown target) that it was considered inappropriate to include this period in the gaze shift analyses. The five gaze shifts can be seen in Fig. 1.


Reduced gaze following and attention to heads when viewing a "live" social scene.

Gregory NJ, Lόpez B, Graham G, Marshman P, Bate S, Kargas N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Screen shots of the five gaze shifts occurring in the video.The individuals who acted in the video scene presented in this manuscript have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish images taken from this video.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390321&req=5

pone.0121792.g001: Screen shots of the five gaze shifts occurring in the video.The individuals who acted in the video scene presented in this manuscript have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish images taken from this video.
Mentions: The video stimulus was filmed in a seminar room at the University of Portsmouth using stationary digital video camera at a rate of 30 frames per second at a size of 720 x 400 pixels. The audio track was removed from the edited video. The video was initially prepared using Adobe Premier 9.0 and the quality was deliberately degraded to give the appearance of a live webcam stream. In order to create the experimental programme, the video was converted to an. xvd file using SR Research’s Experiment Builder software. The first frame of the video showed a female actor sitting on a sofa in a waiting room scenario whilst interacting with her mobile phone. To the left of her, a bookcase was visible and to the right of her was an empty space on the sofa. Further to the right, an open door was partially visible. Two posters were visible on the wall behind the chairs. After approximately 10 seconds, a second female actor entered the room and sat next to the first actor after extending a short greeting. The actors remained seated throughout the video, which lasted for two minutes, either interacting with their mobile phone or reading a magazine. On five occasions during the video, a gaze shift (head turn and eye gaze together) towards an object or event in the room was performed by one of the actors. The gaze shifts always began before the target of the shift was apparent. In three shifts, the actors looked towards the open door as if they heard the approach of another person. In another shift, the actor looked towards the bookcase. In a further shift, the actor looked towards an out of shot actor as if they had attracted their attention by moving suddenly. A period of between 1.8 and 3.2 seconds elapsed before the target of the shift became apparent. In the case of the shifts towards the door, the target event was someone entering the room, with just their hand entering the shot for a moment as they walked through the door. In the case of the shift towards the off-screen actor, the target event was a magazine being turned by that actor which briefly entered the shot on one side of the screen. In the case of the bookshelf shift, the target event was slightly different to the others in that the actor reached out and picked up a magazine which had attracted her attention. After approximately 1.5 minutes into the video, one actor asked the other the time. Although this technically involved gaze shifts from both actors, it was deemed to be so qualitatively different to the other shifts (which involved a gaze shift of a solitary actor towards an unknown target) that it was considered inappropriate to include this period in the gaze shift analyses. The five gaze shifts can be seen in Fig. 1.

Bottom Line: Results demonstrated that the social context in which the stimulus was viewed significantly influenced viewing behaviour.Specifically, participants in the social conditions allocated less visual attention towards the heads of the actors in the scene and followed their gaze less than those in the free-viewing group.These findings suggest that by underestimating the impact of social context in social attention, researchers risk coming to inaccurate conclusions about how we attend to others in the real world.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Hampshire, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Social stimuli are known to both attract and direct our attention, but most research on social attention has been conducted in highly controlled laboratory settings lacking in social context. This study examined the role of social context on viewing behaviour of participants whilst they watched a dynamic social scene, under three different conditions. In two social groups, participants believed they were watching a live webcam of other participants. The socially-engaged group believed they would later complete a group task with the people in the video, whilst the non-engaged group believed they would not meet the people in the scene. In a third condition, participants simply free-viewed the same video with the knowledge that it was pre-recorded, with no suggestion of a later interaction. Results demonstrated that the social context in which the stimulus was viewed significantly influenced viewing behaviour. Specifically, participants in the social conditions allocated less visual attention towards the heads of the actors in the scene and followed their gaze less than those in the free-viewing group. These findings suggest that by underestimating the impact of social context in social attention, researchers risk coming to inaccurate conclusions about how we attend to others in the real world.

No MeSH data available.