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Percutaneous ultrasound guided implantation of VX2 for creation of a rabbit hepatic tumor model.

White SB, Chen J, Gordon AC, Harris KR, Nicolai JR, West DL, Larson AC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Open surgical procedures are invasive and require long procedure times and recovery that can result in post-operative morbidity and mortality.Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess for tumor growth and necropsy was performed to determine rates of tract seeding and metastatic disease.Therefore, percutaneous ultrasound guided tumor implantation safely provides reliable tumor growth for establishing hepatic VX2 tumors in a rabbit model with decreased rates of tract seeding, compared to previously reported methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America; Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Creation of a VX2 tumor model has traditionally required a laparotomy and surgical implantation of tumor fragments. Open surgical procedures are invasive and require long procedure times and recovery that can result in post-operative morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to report the results of a percutaneous ultrasound guided method for creation of a VX2 model in rabbit livers. A total of 27 New Zealand white rabbits underwent a percutaneous ultrasound guided approach, where a VX2 tumor fragment was implanted in the liver. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess for tumor growth and necropsy was performed to determine rates of tract seeding and metastatic disease. Ultrasound guided tumor implantation was successful in all 27 rabbits. One rabbit died 2 days following the implantation procedure. Two rabbits had no tumors seen on follow-up imaging. Therefore, tumor development was seen in 24/26 (92%) rabbits. During the follow-up period, tract seeding was seen in 8% of rabbits and 38% had extra-hepatic metastatic disease. Therefore, percutaneous ultrasound guided tumor implantation safely provides reliable tumor growth for establishing hepatic VX2 tumors in a rabbit model with decreased rates of tract seeding, compared to previously reported methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Tumor preparation.(A) Hind limb tumors were placed in a sterile petri dish and sliced into small tumor fragments (3-4mm3). (B) A 17 gauge coaxial introducer has a hollow core (white arrow), with two inner stylets, sharp (black arrow head) and blunt (white arrow head).
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pone.0123888.g001: Tumor preparation.(A) Hind limb tumors were placed in a sterile petri dish and sliced into small tumor fragments (3-4mm3). (B) A 17 gauge coaxial introducer has a hollow core (white arrow), with two inner stylets, sharp (black arrow head) and blunt (white arrow head).

Mentions: A total of 27 New Zealand white rabbits had VX2 tumor fragments implanted into the liver parenchyma under ultrasound guidance. Naïve rabbits were anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of ketamine and xylazine, as previously described. Anesthesia was maintained with 2–3% inhaled isofluorane (Piramel Healthcare, Bethlehem, PA), as needed. The abdomen was shaved and a preliminary ultrasound (Mindray M7, Midray Medical Intl Ltd, Shenzhen, China) was performed with a L14-6S transducer for visualization of the gallbladder, bowel, stomach and to determine the target implantation site within the liver. Next, the tumor that was placed in normal saline was sliced into 3–4 mm3 fragments (Fig 1A). Under aseptic conditions, a small 1 mm incision was made in the skin using an 11 blade. A 17 gauge 7.8 cm coaxial introducer (C.R. Bard, Inc, Tempe, AZ) was utilized and has a hollow core and a sharp and blunt inner stylet (Fig 1B). Then, the coaxial introducer with the sharp inner stylet was inserted into the liver via a subcostal approach (Fig 2A) under direct ultrasound guidance. The sharp inner stylet was removed and a small tumor fragment (3–4 mm3) was pushed through the introducer with the blunt stylet into the liver. Once the tumor fragment was implanted, a focus of hyperechogenicity was seen representing a combination of the implanted tumor fragment and air (Fig 2B). The introducer was then removed and flushed to ensure that the fragment had been implanted into the liver. In cases of residual tumor within the introducer, an additional US-guided puncture was performed. The desired outcome was successful implantation of two tumor fragments into the liver in each rabbit. Post implantation ultrasound was performed to assess for complications including bleeding.


Percutaneous ultrasound guided implantation of VX2 for creation of a rabbit hepatic tumor model.

White SB, Chen J, Gordon AC, Harris KR, Nicolai JR, West DL, Larson AC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Tumor preparation.(A) Hind limb tumors were placed in a sterile petri dish and sliced into small tumor fragments (3-4mm3). (B) A 17 gauge coaxial introducer has a hollow core (white arrow), with two inner stylets, sharp (black arrow head) and blunt (white arrow head).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390313&req=5

pone.0123888.g001: Tumor preparation.(A) Hind limb tumors were placed in a sterile petri dish and sliced into small tumor fragments (3-4mm3). (B) A 17 gauge coaxial introducer has a hollow core (white arrow), with two inner stylets, sharp (black arrow head) and blunt (white arrow head).
Mentions: A total of 27 New Zealand white rabbits had VX2 tumor fragments implanted into the liver parenchyma under ultrasound guidance. Naïve rabbits were anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of ketamine and xylazine, as previously described. Anesthesia was maintained with 2–3% inhaled isofluorane (Piramel Healthcare, Bethlehem, PA), as needed. The abdomen was shaved and a preliminary ultrasound (Mindray M7, Midray Medical Intl Ltd, Shenzhen, China) was performed with a L14-6S transducer for visualization of the gallbladder, bowel, stomach and to determine the target implantation site within the liver. Next, the tumor that was placed in normal saline was sliced into 3–4 mm3 fragments (Fig 1A). Under aseptic conditions, a small 1 mm incision was made in the skin using an 11 blade. A 17 gauge 7.8 cm coaxial introducer (C.R. Bard, Inc, Tempe, AZ) was utilized and has a hollow core and a sharp and blunt inner stylet (Fig 1B). Then, the coaxial introducer with the sharp inner stylet was inserted into the liver via a subcostal approach (Fig 2A) under direct ultrasound guidance. The sharp inner stylet was removed and a small tumor fragment (3–4 mm3) was pushed through the introducer with the blunt stylet into the liver. Once the tumor fragment was implanted, a focus of hyperechogenicity was seen representing a combination of the implanted tumor fragment and air (Fig 2B). The introducer was then removed and flushed to ensure that the fragment had been implanted into the liver. In cases of residual tumor within the introducer, an additional US-guided puncture was performed. The desired outcome was successful implantation of two tumor fragments into the liver in each rabbit. Post implantation ultrasound was performed to assess for complications including bleeding.

Bottom Line: Open surgical procedures are invasive and require long procedure times and recovery that can result in post-operative morbidity and mortality.Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess for tumor growth and necropsy was performed to determine rates of tract seeding and metastatic disease.Therefore, percutaneous ultrasound guided tumor implantation safely provides reliable tumor growth for establishing hepatic VX2 tumors in a rabbit model with decreased rates of tract seeding, compared to previously reported methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America; Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Creation of a VX2 tumor model has traditionally required a laparotomy and surgical implantation of tumor fragments. Open surgical procedures are invasive and require long procedure times and recovery that can result in post-operative morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to report the results of a percutaneous ultrasound guided method for creation of a VX2 model in rabbit livers. A total of 27 New Zealand white rabbits underwent a percutaneous ultrasound guided approach, where a VX2 tumor fragment was implanted in the liver. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess for tumor growth and necropsy was performed to determine rates of tract seeding and metastatic disease. Ultrasound guided tumor implantation was successful in all 27 rabbits. One rabbit died 2 days following the implantation procedure. Two rabbits had no tumors seen on follow-up imaging. Therefore, tumor development was seen in 24/26 (92%) rabbits. During the follow-up period, tract seeding was seen in 8% of rabbits and 38% had extra-hepatic metastatic disease. Therefore, percutaneous ultrasound guided tumor implantation safely provides reliable tumor growth for establishing hepatic VX2 tumors in a rabbit model with decreased rates of tract seeding, compared to previously reported methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus