Limits...
European flint landraces grown in situ reveal adaptive introgression from modern maize.

Bitocchi E, Bellucci E, Rau D, Albertini E, Rodriguez M, Veronesi F, Attene G, Nanni L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In particular, the locus showing the strongest signals of selection is a Misfit transposable element.Finally, molecular characterisation of the same samples with two different molecular markers has allowed us to compare their performances.Although the genetic-diversity and population-structure analyses provide the same global qualitative pattern, which thus provides the same inferences, there are differences related to their natures and characteristics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We have investigated the role of selection in the determination of the detected levels of introgression from modern maize hybrid varieties into maize landraces still cultivated in situ in Italy. We exploited the availability of a historical collection of landraces undertaken before the introduction and widespread use of modern maize, to analyse genomic changes that have occurred in these maize landraces over 50 years of co-existence with hybrid varieties. We have combined a previously published SSR dataset (n=21) with an AFLP loci dataset (n=168) to provide higher resolution power and to obtain a more detailed picture. We show that selection pressures for adaptation have favoured new alleles introduced by migration from hybrids. This shows the potential for analysis of historical introgression even over this short period of 50 years, for an understanding of the evolution of the genome and for the identification of its functionally important regions. Moreover, this demonstrates that landraces grown in situ represent almost unique populations for use for such studies when the focus is on the domesticated plant. This is due to their adaptation, which has arisen from their dynamic evolution under a continuously changing agro-ecological environment, and their capture of new alleles from hybridisation. We have also identified loci for which selection has inhibited introgression from modern germplasm and has enhanced the distinction between landraces and modern maize. These loci indicate that selection acted in the past, during the formation of the flint and dent gene pools. In particular, the locus showing the strongest signals of selection is a Misfit transposable element. Finally, molecular characterisation of the same samples with two different molecular markers has allowed us to compare their performances. Although the genetic-diversity and population-structure analyses provide the same global qualitative pattern, which thus provides the same inferences, there are differences related to their natures and characteristics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Population structure at individual level.Percentages of membership to cluster 1 (q1, red) and cluster 2 (q2, blue) for each of the 218 genotypes for the SSR (a) and AFLP (b) molecular markers. Each genotype is represented by a vertical bar divided into two coloured segments, the lengths of which indicate the proportions of the genome attributed to cluster 1 and cluster 2. The arrow indicates the four genotypes of the control accession ANGRMC13.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390310&req=5

pone.0121381.g002: Population structure at individual level.Percentages of membership to cluster 1 (q1, red) and cluster 2 (q2, blue) for each of the 218 genotypes for the SSR (a) and AFLP (b) molecular markers. Each genotype is represented by a vertical bar divided into two coloured segments, the lengths of which indicate the proportions of the genome attributed to cluster 1 and cluster 2. The arrow indicates the four genotypes of the control accession ANGRMC13.

Mentions: The percentages of membership (i.e., q values) for each genotype in each of these two clusters (hereafter referred to as cluster 1 and cluster 2) were computed (Fig. 2). The correlation analysis between the q values between the two different molecular markers indicated that they were highly consistent (Spearman's ρ = 0.84, P <0.0001).


European flint landraces grown in situ reveal adaptive introgression from modern maize.

Bitocchi E, Bellucci E, Rau D, Albertini E, Rodriguez M, Veronesi F, Attene G, Nanni L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Population structure at individual level.Percentages of membership to cluster 1 (q1, red) and cluster 2 (q2, blue) for each of the 218 genotypes for the SSR (a) and AFLP (b) molecular markers. Each genotype is represented by a vertical bar divided into two coloured segments, the lengths of which indicate the proportions of the genome attributed to cluster 1 and cluster 2. The arrow indicates the four genotypes of the control accession ANGRMC13.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390310&req=5

pone.0121381.g002: Population structure at individual level.Percentages of membership to cluster 1 (q1, red) and cluster 2 (q2, blue) for each of the 218 genotypes for the SSR (a) and AFLP (b) molecular markers. Each genotype is represented by a vertical bar divided into two coloured segments, the lengths of which indicate the proportions of the genome attributed to cluster 1 and cluster 2. The arrow indicates the four genotypes of the control accession ANGRMC13.
Mentions: The percentages of membership (i.e., q values) for each genotype in each of these two clusters (hereafter referred to as cluster 1 and cluster 2) were computed (Fig. 2). The correlation analysis between the q values between the two different molecular markers indicated that they were highly consistent (Spearman's ρ = 0.84, P <0.0001).

Bottom Line: In particular, the locus showing the strongest signals of selection is a Misfit transposable element.Finally, molecular characterisation of the same samples with two different molecular markers has allowed us to compare their performances.Although the genetic-diversity and population-structure analyses provide the same global qualitative pattern, which thus provides the same inferences, there are differences related to their natures and characteristics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We have investigated the role of selection in the determination of the detected levels of introgression from modern maize hybrid varieties into maize landraces still cultivated in situ in Italy. We exploited the availability of a historical collection of landraces undertaken before the introduction and widespread use of modern maize, to analyse genomic changes that have occurred in these maize landraces over 50 years of co-existence with hybrid varieties. We have combined a previously published SSR dataset (n=21) with an AFLP loci dataset (n=168) to provide higher resolution power and to obtain a more detailed picture. We show that selection pressures for adaptation have favoured new alleles introduced by migration from hybrids. This shows the potential for analysis of historical introgression even over this short period of 50 years, for an understanding of the evolution of the genome and for the identification of its functionally important regions. Moreover, this demonstrates that landraces grown in situ represent almost unique populations for use for such studies when the focus is on the domesticated plant. This is due to their adaptation, which has arisen from their dynamic evolution under a continuously changing agro-ecological environment, and their capture of new alleles from hybridisation. We have also identified loci for which selection has inhibited introgression from modern germplasm and has enhanced the distinction between landraces and modern maize. These loci indicate that selection acted in the past, during the formation of the flint and dent gene pools. In particular, the locus showing the strongest signals of selection is a Misfit transposable element. Finally, molecular characterisation of the same samples with two different molecular markers has allowed us to compare their performances. Although the genetic-diversity and population-structure analyses provide the same global qualitative pattern, which thus provides the same inferences, there are differences related to their natures and characteristics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus