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Ciprofloxacin-eluting nanofibers inhibits biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Ahire JJ, Neveling DP, Hattingh M, Dicks LM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: A single vibration peak at 1632 cm-1, recorded with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, indicated that CIP remained in crystal form when incorporated into PDLLA: PEO.No abnormalities in the histology of MCF-12A breast epithelial cells were observed when exposed to CIP-F.This is the first report of the inhibition of biofilm formation by CIP released from PDLLA: PEO nanofibers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (Stellenbosch), South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly associated with hospital-acquired infections and are known to form biofilms. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), which is normally used to treat these infections, is seldom effective in killing cells in a biofilm. This is mostly due to slow or weak penetration of CIP to the core of biofilms. The problem is accentuated by the release of CIP below MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) levels following a rapid (burst) release. The aim of this study was to develop a drug carrier that would keep CIP above MIC levels for an extended period. Ciprofloxacin was suspended into poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and electrospun into nanofibers (CIP-F). All of the CIP was released from the nanofibers within 2 h, which is typical of a burst release. However, 99% of P. aeruginosa PA01 cells and 91% of S. aureus Xen 30 cells (a methicillin-resistant strain) in biofilms were killed when exposed to CIP-F. CIP levels remained above MIC for 5 days, as shown by growth inhibition of the cells in vitro. The nanofibers were smooth in texture with no bead formation, as revealed by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. A single vibration peak at 1632 cm-1, recorded with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, indicated that CIP remained in crystal form when incorporated into PDLLA: PEO. No abnormalities in the histology of MCF-12A breast epithelial cells were observed when exposed to CIP-F. This is the first report of the inhibition of biofilm formation by CIP released from PDLLA: PEO nanofibers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A and C: Biofilm formation recorded for P. aeruginosa PA01 and C: S. aureus Xen 30, respectively.Biofilm formation is expressed as optical density of crystal violet-stained cells. B and D: viable cell numbers recorded for P. aeruginosa PA01 and C: S. aureus Xen 30, respectively. E: Biofilm images recorded with a light microscope. CIP-F = nanofibers containing ciprofloxacin (CIP), CF = nanofibers without CIP, control = no nanofibers and no CIP. Data points presented are the average of three independent experiments (mean ± standard deviation). * p < 0.05.
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pone.0123648.g004: A and C: Biofilm formation recorded for P. aeruginosa PA01 and C: S. aureus Xen 30, respectively.Biofilm formation is expressed as optical density of crystal violet-stained cells. B and D: viable cell numbers recorded for P. aeruginosa PA01 and C: S. aureus Xen 30, respectively. E: Biofilm images recorded with a light microscope. CIP-F = nanofibers containing ciprofloxacin (CIP), CF = nanofibers without CIP, control = no nanofibers and no CIP. Data points presented are the average of three independent experiments (mean ± standard deviation). * p < 0.05.

Mentions: P. aeruginosa PA01 formed a strong biofilm over 48 h in the presence of CF, as indicated by an increase in OD550-readings from 0.5 to 4.0 (Fig 4A). Changes in OD-readings were very similar to that recorded for biofilm formation in the absence of nanofibers, i.e. the control (Fig 4A). A steady increase in cell numbers (from log 10 7 CFU ml–1 to approximately log 10 9 CFU ml–1) was recorded in both these biofilms (Fig 4B). Biofilm formation was inhibited (and even declined) when cells were exposed to CIP-F (Fig 4A). However, an increase in viable cell numbers was recorded (from log 10 3 CFU ml–1 to log 10 6 CFU ml–1) in biofilms exposed to CIP-F (Fig 4B). Microscopic images taken of the P. aeruginosa PA01 biofilms after 48 h of incubation is shown in Fig 4E.


Ciprofloxacin-eluting nanofibers inhibits biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Ahire JJ, Neveling DP, Hattingh M, Dicks LM - PLoS ONE (2015)

A and C: Biofilm formation recorded for P. aeruginosa PA01 and C: S. aureus Xen 30, respectively.Biofilm formation is expressed as optical density of crystal violet-stained cells. B and D: viable cell numbers recorded for P. aeruginosa PA01 and C: S. aureus Xen 30, respectively. E: Biofilm images recorded with a light microscope. CIP-F = nanofibers containing ciprofloxacin (CIP), CF = nanofibers without CIP, control = no nanofibers and no CIP. Data points presented are the average of three independent experiments (mean ± standard deviation). * p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390291&req=5

pone.0123648.g004: A and C: Biofilm formation recorded for P. aeruginosa PA01 and C: S. aureus Xen 30, respectively.Biofilm formation is expressed as optical density of crystal violet-stained cells. B and D: viable cell numbers recorded for P. aeruginosa PA01 and C: S. aureus Xen 30, respectively. E: Biofilm images recorded with a light microscope. CIP-F = nanofibers containing ciprofloxacin (CIP), CF = nanofibers without CIP, control = no nanofibers and no CIP. Data points presented are the average of three independent experiments (mean ± standard deviation). * p < 0.05.
Mentions: P. aeruginosa PA01 formed a strong biofilm over 48 h in the presence of CF, as indicated by an increase in OD550-readings from 0.5 to 4.0 (Fig 4A). Changes in OD-readings were very similar to that recorded for biofilm formation in the absence of nanofibers, i.e. the control (Fig 4A). A steady increase in cell numbers (from log 10 7 CFU ml–1 to approximately log 10 9 CFU ml–1) was recorded in both these biofilms (Fig 4B). Biofilm formation was inhibited (and even declined) when cells were exposed to CIP-F (Fig 4A). However, an increase in viable cell numbers was recorded (from log 10 3 CFU ml–1 to log 10 6 CFU ml–1) in biofilms exposed to CIP-F (Fig 4B). Microscopic images taken of the P. aeruginosa PA01 biofilms after 48 h of incubation is shown in Fig 4E.

Bottom Line: A single vibration peak at 1632 cm-1, recorded with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, indicated that CIP remained in crystal form when incorporated into PDLLA: PEO.No abnormalities in the histology of MCF-12A breast epithelial cells were observed when exposed to CIP-F.This is the first report of the inhibition of biofilm formation by CIP released from PDLLA: PEO nanofibers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (Stellenbosch), South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly associated with hospital-acquired infections and are known to form biofilms. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), which is normally used to treat these infections, is seldom effective in killing cells in a biofilm. This is mostly due to slow or weak penetration of CIP to the core of biofilms. The problem is accentuated by the release of CIP below MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) levels following a rapid (burst) release. The aim of this study was to develop a drug carrier that would keep CIP above MIC levels for an extended period. Ciprofloxacin was suspended into poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and electrospun into nanofibers (CIP-F). All of the CIP was released from the nanofibers within 2 h, which is typical of a burst release. However, 99% of P. aeruginosa PA01 cells and 91% of S. aureus Xen 30 cells (a methicillin-resistant strain) in biofilms were killed when exposed to CIP-F. CIP levels remained above MIC for 5 days, as shown by growth inhibition of the cells in vitro. The nanofibers were smooth in texture with no bead formation, as revealed by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. A single vibration peak at 1632 cm-1, recorded with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, indicated that CIP remained in crystal form when incorporated into PDLLA: PEO. No abnormalities in the histology of MCF-12A breast epithelial cells were observed when exposed to CIP-F. This is the first report of the inhibition of biofilm formation by CIP released from PDLLA: PEO nanofibers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus