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Hunting for the LCT-13910*T allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages suggests its absence in dairying LBK people entering the Kuyavia region in the 8th millennium BP.

Witas HW, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Witas PJ, Masłowska A, Jerszyńska B, Kozłowski T, Osipowicz G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP.We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele's presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Suggested Northern Route of LCT-13910*T spreading.Contrasted is time-dependent occurrence of the T allele along west-east gradient from Iberia (0.27; >5 Ka BP [66]), through Scandinavia (0.05; >4 Ka BP [67]), up to Kuyavia and the Chełmno land (<4 Ka BP as predicted by us), with its simultaneous absence along the Danubian and Mediterranean Routes.
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pone.0122384.g005: Suggested Northern Route of LCT-13910*T spreading.Contrasted is time-dependent occurrence of the T allele along west-east gradient from Iberia (0.27; >5 Ka BP [66]), through Scandinavia (0.05; >4 Ka BP [67]), up to Kuyavia and the Chełmno land (<4 Ka BP as predicted by us), with its simultaneous absence along the Danubian and Mediterranean Routes.

Mentions: Leaving aside the currently unsolvable question on the place of origin of the T allele (too scarce data), the observed high frequency in the area of the Basque Country 5.0–4.5 Ka BP [66], in contrast to Central [14] and Southern Europe [13], justifies a speculation on a distinct spreading scenario of the T allele (Fig. 5). It could have spread along a pathway never considered, which we propose to call the Northern Route (NR), running eastward from northern Iberia along European coast by sea and/or by land, reaching regions mostly north of the main stream where high frequency of LCT-13910*T is observed today. Marine NR could have ran along the Biscay Gulf, the Celtic Sea, the English Channel to the North Sea and through Skagerrak and Kattegat to the Baltic Sea, “delivering” the allele not only to the northern part of continental Europe, but also to northwest European archipelagos. It was found that the first farmers arrived in northern Britain, the Channel Isles and the Isle of Man 5.7 Ka BP. They practiced dairying in contrast to the Mesolithic inhabitants of the region and rapidly changed local dietary habits giving up marine resources and adopting intensive dairy farming [68]. Such perfect circumstances would allow for selection of the T allele just after its introduction. Although a different scheme of the Neolithization process was observed in the region of the Baltic Sea, dairying was also practiced since the very beginning of introduction of new technologies [57]. The finding of the T allele in the Mesolithic population from Gotland (PWC), inhabiting the island simultaneously with the Neolithic population of the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB) which practiced dairying since 6.0–5.0 Ka BP [69], suggests that people from Gotland living between 4.8–4.2 Ka BP as well as those from Central Poland (living roughly between 4 and 3 Ka BP) could have witnessed the beginning of the T allele selection, in contrast to individuals from Central and Southern Europe. The Northern Route of the allele’s spreading is even more likely in the light of recently suggested genetic similarity between Scandinavian and Iberian farmers [70].


Hunting for the LCT-13910*T allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages suggests its absence in dairying LBK people entering the Kuyavia region in the 8th millennium BP.

Witas HW, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Witas PJ, Masłowska A, Jerszyńska B, Kozłowski T, Osipowicz G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Suggested Northern Route of LCT-13910*T spreading.Contrasted is time-dependent occurrence of the T allele along west-east gradient from Iberia (0.27; >5 Ka BP [66]), through Scandinavia (0.05; >4 Ka BP [67]), up to Kuyavia and the Chełmno land (<4 Ka BP as predicted by us), with its simultaneous absence along the Danubian and Mediterranean Routes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390234&req=5

pone.0122384.g005: Suggested Northern Route of LCT-13910*T spreading.Contrasted is time-dependent occurrence of the T allele along west-east gradient from Iberia (0.27; >5 Ka BP [66]), through Scandinavia (0.05; >4 Ka BP [67]), up to Kuyavia and the Chełmno land (<4 Ka BP as predicted by us), with its simultaneous absence along the Danubian and Mediterranean Routes.
Mentions: Leaving aside the currently unsolvable question on the place of origin of the T allele (too scarce data), the observed high frequency in the area of the Basque Country 5.0–4.5 Ka BP [66], in contrast to Central [14] and Southern Europe [13], justifies a speculation on a distinct spreading scenario of the T allele (Fig. 5). It could have spread along a pathway never considered, which we propose to call the Northern Route (NR), running eastward from northern Iberia along European coast by sea and/or by land, reaching regions mostly north of the main stream where high frequency of LCT-13910*T is observed today. Marine NR could have ran along the Biscay Gulf, the Celtic Sea, the English Channel to the North Sea and through Skagerrak and Kattegat to the Baltic Sea, “delivering” the allele not only to the northern part of continental Europe, but also to northwest European archipelagos. It was found that the first farmers arrived in northern Britain, the Channel Isles and the Isle of Man 5.7 Ka BP. They practiced dairying in contrast to the Mesolithic inhabitants of the region and rapidly changed local dietary habits giving up marine resources and adopting intensive dairy farming [68]. Such perfect circumstances would allow for selection of the T allele just after its introduction. Although a different scheme of the Neolithization process was observed in the region of the Baltic Sea, dairying was also practiced since the very beginning of introduction of new technologies [57]. The finding of the T allele in the Mesolithic population from Gotland (PWC), inhabiting the island simultaneously with the Neolithic population of the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB) which practiced dairying since 6.0–5.0 Ka BP [69], suggests that people from Gotland living between 4.8–4.2 Ka BP as well as those from Central Poland (living roughly between 4 and 3 Ka BP) could have witnessed the beginning of the T allele selection, in contrast to individuals from Central and Southern Europe. The Northern Route of the allele’s spreading is even more likely in the light of recently suggested genetic similarity between Scandinavian and Iberian farmers [70].

Bottom Line: It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP.We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele's presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus