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Hunting for the LCT-13910*T allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages suggests its absence in dairying LBK people entering the Kuyavia region in the 8th millennium BP.

Witas HW, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Witas PJ, Masłowska A, Jerszyńska B, Kozłowski T, Osipowicz G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP.We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele's presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Median joining phylogenetic network of 131 ancient inhabitants of Polish lands based on HVR-I sequences (nt 16115–16340, motifs in red).80 samples are from archaeological sites located on a relatively small area belonging to Kuyavia and the Chełmno land and represent people living between 6.5–6.1 Ka BP and 0.8–0.6 Ka BP, i.e. 9 individuals dated to Polish Neolithic (3—Lengyel culture, 6—Globular Amphora culture), 8 from Polish Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age (Hallstatt culture), 34 from Polish Roman Period (Wielbark culture; Linowo—13, Rogowo—21) and 29 from Polish Middle Ages (Gruczno—15, SBK-4–14). Additional 51 medieval samples collected outside Kuyavia and the Chełmno land (Cedynia—35, Sródka—16) constituted the reference group. Origin of the sample is marked with different colors. The size of the node is proportional to the number of individuals.
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pone.0122384.g004: Median joining phylogenetic network of 131 ancient inhabitants of Polish lands based on HVR-I sequences (nt 16115–16340, motifs in red).80 samples are from archaeological sites located on a relatively small area belonging to Kuyavia and the Chełmno land and represent people living between 6.5–6.1 Ka BP and 0.8–0.6 Ka BP, i.e. 9 individuals dated to Polish Neolithic (3—Lengyel culture, 6—Globular Amphora culture), 8 from Polish Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age (Hallstatt culture), 34 from Polish Roman Period (Wielbark culture; Linowo—13, Rogowo—21) and 29 from Polish Middle Ages (Gruczno—15, SBK-4–14). Additional 51 medieval samples collected outside Kuyavia and the Chełmno land (Cedynia—35, Sródka—16) constituted the reference group. Origin of the sample is marked with different colors. The size of the node is proportional to the number of individuals.

Mentions: Having an opportunity to sample and characterize a large number of individuals living over several millennia in the same region, not encountered in the literature so far, we followed the HVR-I sequence to evaluate genetic continuity, heterogeneity, putative origin and their relationship to ancestral and descendant populations. Based on HVR-I sequence and comparative haplotype analysis, it can be demonstrated that, except the subpopulation from Rogowo, all studied samples share continuity in the maternal lineage with an ancestral population (Table 5). A sign of the interaction between first farmers and foragers, i.e. the presence of hg U5b, within the studied samples was found only in the Hallstatt group (2.8–2.6 Ka BP), which does not mean that earlier contacts did not take place (Table E in S1 File). U5/U5a/U5b, most abundant haplogroups in the Mesolithic Europe [38–40], were also identified, however, in populations living later, as presented in Tables F-K in S1 File. The presence of haplogroup K, which arose 31.4 Ka ago somewhere between Near East and Europe [41] and was highly abundant across the Neolithic Europe [13,39], confirms a contribution of first farmers’ substrate to the maternal lineage of the region from the Neolithic through medieval times (Tables D-K in S1 File). However, haplotype changes characteristic for hg K and common in LBK individuals [38,40] were not found among three individuals representing the Lengyel culture (Table D in S1 File), unlike, however, in the case of two of six other Neolithic individuals of the Globular Amphora culture. This might suggest a diverse origin of these cultural groups or impact of migrants during the latter period. Overall comparison of the literature data obtained for Mesolithic [38,39], Neolithic [13,39,42] and modern specimens [43] with those obtained herein depicts a gradual decrease of K and increase of U5 frequency during the formation of medieval population. Overall relations between haplotypes identified in 131 ancient inhabitants of Polish lands are presented in Fig. 4 as median joining network.


Hunting for the LCT-13910*T allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages suggests its absence in dairying LBK people entering the Kuyavia region in the 8th millennium BP.

Witas HW, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Witas PJ, Masłowska A, Jerszyńska B, Kozłowski T, Osipowicz G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Median joining phylogenetic network of 131 ancient inhabitants of Polish lands based on HVR-I sequences (nt 16115–16340, motifs in red).80 samples are from archaeological sites located on a relatively small area belonging to Kuyavia and the Chełmno land and represent people living between 6.5–6.1 Ka BP and 0.8–0.6 Ka BP, i.e. 9 individuals dated to Polish Neolithic (3—Lengyel culture, 6—Globular Amphora culture), 8 from Polish Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age (Hallstatt culture), 34 from Polish Roman Period (Wielbark culture; Linowo—13, Rogowo—21) and 29 from Polish Middle Ages (Gruczno—15, SBK-4–14). Additional 51 medieval samples collected outside Kuyavia and the Chełmno land (Cedynia—35, Sródka—16) constituted the reference group. Origin of the sample is marked with different colors. The size of the node is proportional to the number of individuals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390234&req=5

pone.0122384.g004: Median joining phylogenetic network of 131 ancient inhabitants of Polish lands based on HVR-I sequences (nt 16115–16340, motifs in red).80 samples are from archaeological sites located on a relatively small area belonging to Kuyavia and the Chełmno land and represent people living between 6.5–6.1 Ka BP and 0.8–0.6 Ka BP, i.e. 9 individuals dated to Polish Neolithic (3—Lengyel culture, 6—Globular Amphora culture), 8 from Polish Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age (Hallstatt culture), 34 from Polish Roman Period (Wielbark culture; Linowo—13, Rogowo—21) and 29 from Polish Middle Ages (Gruczno—15, SBK-4–14). Additional 51 medieval samples collected outside Kuyavia and the Chełmno land (Cedynia—35, Sródka—16) constituted the reference group. Origin of the sample is marked with different colors. The size of the node is proportional to the number of individuals.
Mentions: Having an opportunity to sample and characterize a large number of individuals living over several millennia in the same region, not encountered in the literature so far, we followed the HVR-I sequence to evaluate genetic continuity, heterogeneity, putative origin and their relationship to ancestral and descendant populations. Based on HVR-I sequence and comparative haplotype analysis, it can be demonstrated that, except the subpopulation from Rogowo, all studied samples share continuity in the maternal lineage with an ancestral population (Table 5). A sign of the interaction between first farmers and foragers, i.e. the presence of hg U5b, within the studied samples was found only in the Hallstatt group (2.8–2.6 Ka BP), which does not mean that earlier contacts did not take place (Table E in S1 File). U5/U5a/U5b, most abundant haplogroups in the Mesolithic Europe [38–40], were also identified, however, in populations living later, as presented in Tables F-K in S1 File. The presence of haplogroup K, which arose 31.4 Ka ago somewhere between Near East and Europe [41] and was highly abundant across the Neolithic Europe [13,39], confirms a contribution of first farmers’ substrate to the maternal lineage of the region from the Neolithic through medieval times (Tables D-K in S1 File). However, haplotype changes characteristic for hg K and common in LBK individuals [38,40] were not found among three individuals representing the Lengyel culture (Table D in S1 File), unlike, however, in the case of two of six other Neolithic individuals of the Globular Amphora culture. This might suggest a diverse origin of these cultural groups or impact of migrants during the latter period. Overall comparison of the literature data obtained for Mesolithic [38,39], Neolithic [13,39,42] and modern specimens [43] with those obtained herein depicts a gradual decrease of K and increase of U5 frequency during the formation of medieval population. Overall relations between haplotypes identified in 131 ancient inhabitants of Polish lands are presented in Fig. 4 as median joining network.

Bottom Line: It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP.We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele's presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus