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Hunting for the LCT-13910*T allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages suggests its absence in dairying LBK people entering the Kuyavia region in the 8th millennium BP.

Witas HW, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Witas PJ, Masłowska A, Jerszyńska B, Kozłowski T, Osipowicz G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP.We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele's presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Each 3D plot together with its 2D projection presents probability of a scenario with given selection coefficient and the T allele introduction time, assuming variable population size (see S1 Fig. for the shape of the size curve).The height/color of each bar represents the percentage of Wright-Fisher curves (number per 1000) falling into appropriate confidence intervals shown in Table 2: A—the T allele, B—LP, C—the T allele and LP jointly.
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pone.0122384.g002: Each 3D plot together with its 2D projection presents probability of a scenario with given selection coefficient and the T allele introduction time, assuming variable population size (see S1 Fig. for the shape of the size curve).The height/color of each bar represents the percentage of Wright-Fisher curves (number per 1000) falling into appropriate confidence intervals shown in Table 2: A—the T allele, B—LP, C—the T allele and LP jointly.

Mentions: The criterion for choosing a value of selection coefficient and the T allele introduction time as significant was that they noticeably increased the percentage of the allele and the trait frequency curves falling into appropriate confidence intervals. This procedure distinguishes a whole set of these parameters, not only a single pair (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). Moreover, observed were small fluctuations in percentage between different runs of numerical calculations (of the order of a few percent).


Hunting for the LCT-13910*T allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages suggests its absence in dairying LBK people entering the Kuyavia region in the 8th millennium BP.

Witas HW, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Witas PJ, Masłowska A, Jerszyńska B, Kozłowski T, Osipowicz G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Each 3D plot together with its 2D projection presents probability of a scenario with given selection coefficient and the T allele introduction time, assuming variable population size (see S1 Fig. for the shape of the size curve).The height/color of each bar represents the percentage of Wright-Fisher curves (number per 1000) falling into appropriate confidence intervals shown in Table 2: A—the T allele, B—LP, C—the T allele and LP jointly.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390234&req=5

pone.0122384.g002: Each 3D plot together with its 2D projection presents probability of a scenario with given selection coefficient and the T allele introduction time, assuming variable population size (see S1 Fig. for the shape of the size curve).The height/color of each bar represents the percentage of Wright-Fisher curves (number per 1000) falling into appropriate confidence intervals shown in Table 2: A—the T allele, B—LP, C—the T allele and LP jointly.
Mentions: The criterion for choosing a value of selection coefficient and the T allele introduction time as significant was that they noticeably increased the percentage of the allele and the trait frequency curves falling into appropriate confidence intervals. This procedure distinguishes a whole set of these parameters, not only a single pair (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). Moreover, observed were small fluctuations in percentage between different runs of numerical calculations (of the order of a few percent).

Bottom Line: It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP.We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele's presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus